A summary of the book Peace Within Our Grasp By Crandall R. Kline Jr., August 1999

Preamble by Robert Stewart

This "How To" manual for achieving world peace is quoted from Crandall R. Kline Jr.'s book Peace Within Our Grasp: Making the dream a reality (ISBN 0-9640656-2-2; 1999 version; copies available from C.R. (Dale) Kline, ME, 820 Hampton Ridge Dr., Akron, Ohio, U.S.A. 44313; cost US$10.50; 283 pages; email Mr. Kline at peacedefense@sbcglobal.net ).  The reader is strongly encouraged to read Mr. Kline's book to understand the fullness of his explanations.  You may not agree with everything, but this is the best "How To Achieve World Peace' book that I have read - if you have seen better, please let me know and I will share that too.  It also promotes dialogue on all of the contents.  Mr. Kline has done the world a great service by clearly demonstrating that World Peace is Achievable, and that a "How To" manual can be written, improved, and followed to significantly reduce violence in the world and its human cost.  Thank you Crandall R. (Dale) Kline Jr.  Happy reading, and please share this extremely valuable information with everyone you can.  Robert Stewart (comments are invited to stewartr [at] peace.ca  )


 "'Manliness' means upholding and defending moral rules - not preaching hatred, holding grudges and seeking revenge.

 1900 - 1999 The Bloodiest Century Ever!  27,000,000 soldiers and 170,000,000 civilians killed - Total 197,000,000.  In order for all these people to be killed, there must be millions of people who did the killing.  Why is it so easy to find men who are willing to kill?



 On the question of military defense, people tend to be polarized.

 This polarization makes the selling of the necessary solution difficult and is a serious handicap to attaining peace.

 For peace, we need to focus on the killers, which are estimated at 2% of the male population.

 The evidence that collective defense can prevent wars is quite clear...

 The second part of the plan calls for the elimination of the government's right to kill in any situation, unless unavoidably necessary for the protection of lives or national borders.

 Repressive governments should be removed, preferably by nonviolent means.

 To have world peace, people need to be activists, writing newspapers and (Government) on the issues relating to war prevention.  An active intelligencia supporting the right policies is essential for keeping the government on a peaceful track.

 ...killing, the use of violence for political ends, (is) the common denominator of war.

World peace is not a utopian dream -- it is within our grasp.

Wars are caused by conflicting ideas on what is acceptable national behaviour.  The urge to exert national will and protect perceived rights, however irrational, ... is a powerful emotion.  Wars begin in the minds of men.

For world peace, the upper brain must be in control.


Chapter 1.  The System is the Problem

 Laws are made to determine where one person's rights end and the next person's rights begin.

 International politics is being played with faulty rules and attitudes.

 ...a good set of rules and enforcement are needed to get people to live together peacefully.

 To have world peace, we need some international rules and a means of enforcing them.

 ...governments should have no more right to kill than the civilians do.


Chapter 2.  Religions' Positions, Vacuums and Misdirections

 After 2,000 years of trying, it is time to realize that pacifism has no chance of attaining the popular appeal that is necessary to make it effective in preventing wars.

 The problem with the just-war rules is that the definition of "just-cause" is too lenient and the rules have been misused.

 Nonviolent reforms should always be the first method tried for correcting a repressive regime, but when all nonviolent means fail, enforcement by the U.N. is unfortunately the only effective answer.

 ...it is imperative for world peace that the people not accept the "orders is orders" concept in their role as citizens.  Instead, they should hold the conviction that (1) governments have no right to kill and (2) citizens should refuse to follow orders to kill.  It has taken centuries to get rid of the "divine right of kings" concept, now we need to get rid of the divine right of governments.

 ...citizens have a right to disobey immoral orders when issued by the government...

 ...about 70% of the people in the U.S. are in favor of the death penalty.  This preference is based on emotions, rather than on clear thinking.

 The facts are that the death penalty does not deter murder, and does not save taxpayers any money.


Chapter 3.  Better Rules are the Solution

  Defense does not mean the right to make a preemptive strike.  The first one to strike is the guilty party.

 Our ultimate goal should be to adopt a rule that government leaders should have no right to kill anybody.

 ...all nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are not defensive weapons and should be eliminated.

 ...nations have no right to use military violence to settle their differences. ...the one who strikes first is the culprit and deserves the condemnation of the world community.

 Nations should be allowed to defend themselves and the blame should be placed on the one who initiated the violence.

 ...a criminal has no right to defend himself from punishment imposed by a legitimate government.

 The legitimacy of the government is important in this scene.

 The government must be the choice of the people.

 The government should be the assurer of nonviolence.

 There must be some freedoms as guaranteed by the Bill of Rights, especially freedom of speech and freedom for religions.

 The majority must be charitable.

 It must have a military and diplomatic policy of defense-only.

 A government should be considered negligent if it does not provide the means for earning a living for all the people who want to work.

 ...a reasonable distribution of wealth

 Rules Needed for World Peace:

1. Nonviolence - No one has the right to kill anyone else.  Groups of people have no more right to kill than individuals have.  Governments have no right to kill anyone.  
2. No Aggression - Lives and land are sacred.  Nations have no right to invade another, kill the people or take their land.
3. Defense - A nation that has a non-repressive government has a right to defend itself from an invasion or revolution.  
4. Guilt - The nation that initiates or supports an invasion, revolution or terrorism is the guilty party.  If their army is on another nation's land they are the guilty party.

  The best system for defense is collective defense.

  ... the United Nations ...

In order for the United Nations to be effective, it must give a permanent warning to all nations that the U.N. will come to the aid of any victim of an invasion. ... As of now, the U.N. is not structured to do this.

  Peace Defense basic tenets:

1. No one has the right to kill for any reason except as immediately and unavoidably required to protect human life or national borders.  
2 & 3. Adequate defensive forces, in combination with rule number 3, are necessary to prevent aggression and repel the invaders.  A world mutual defense pact (as expressed in the U.N. Charter) and a firm resolve by all members to join together to repel aggression (against any nation that complies with rule number 1) are essential.
4. Citizens must withdraw support for any leader that violates rule number 1.
5. Capital punishment is to be replaced with permanent life imprisonments.

  These are five fundamental moral rules from which other rules can be derived in order to implement them.  Not only do we need the right rules, but we need enough people who understand them and who are concerned enough that they will speak up and demand that the government implement them.

  We need to distinguish between a military to be used for empire building and one for maintaining human rights.

  The lesson is clear: Where anarchy prevails, as in Somalia, only the threat of superior force can restore a semblance of order.

  All leaders should be given notice ahead of time that killing will not be tolerated.

  If the United Nations had an international law against repression, the world opinion supporting that law would influence the leader's behaviour.  And furthermore, if the International Criminal Court had the power to bring him to trial and a collective-defense military organization had the authority to arrest him, any leader with thoughts of violence would be deterred from doing any repressive acts.

  There is a serious need for non-lethal weapons.

  Thus far the chief purpose of our military establishment has been to win wars.  From now on, its chief purpose must be to avert them.


  Towards a Global Ethic:

                  We all have a responsibility for a better global order.  
                  Our involvement for the sake of human rights, freedom, justice, peace, and the preservation of the Earth is absolutely necessary.
                  We do not consider ourselves better than other women and men.
                  There will be no better global order without a global ethic.
                  What you do not wish done to yourself, do not do to others.
                  No one has the right physically or psychologically to torture, injure, much less kill, any other human being.
                  No people, no state, no race, no religion has the right to hate.
                  Commit to a life of truthfulness.

Pervasive honesty is necessary for the success of democracy.  Corruption destroys any government.

  Secular Golden Rule: Do nothing that harms another person, that injures, jeopardizes or even offends.

  ...treating everyone with respect...

  ...wisdom consists of knowing when a rule is to be followed and when it should not be followed.


Chapter 4.  Getting the Rules Straight

  The world is different now; with the introduction of democracies and the United Nations our thinking about wars and diplomacy has progressed.

  Diplomacy Strategies

  ...human built-in irrationality, bordering on insanity...

  How the World Has Changed:

1. ...nations must abide by moral rules. ...  Raison d'etat and Realpolitik, which ignored moral rules in international relations, was and still is the thinking of some nations and even some political leaders in the U.S.  
2. The conviction that empire-building is an honorable sport has subsided.
3. Intolerance of ethnic and racial difference has subsided considerably in this century.
4. People are beginning to understand that nations don't cause wars; individuals cause wars.

Thinking That Leads to War:

1. It used to be ours, so we have a right to take it back by force.  
2. They did it to us.  
3. I don't want to be governed by foreigners.  
4. Blaming a whole nation for the acts of individuals.  
5. The rogues, the homicidal 2%, will be nice to us if we are nice to them.  
6. I have a right to do anything that is not prohibited by law, even if it harms others.  
7. If I am nice to others and especially if I am kind to foreign visitors, I am doing my share to prevent wars. ... It is fallacious to think that our personal diplomacy will be enough to make a difference.  Instead we need to learn what national and international policies are needed and work to implement them.  
8. Extreme nationalism.
9. Degrading the value of human lives of those far away.
10. Callous Concern for Mass Murder.
11. Confrontational diplomacy.
12. In foreign policy, the ends justify the means.
13. Putting faith in arms.
14. The passion for revenge.
15. Going to war or continuing a war for honor, or to avenge an insult.
16. Seeking a balance of power in each region.  
17. Unilateral disarmament will prevent wars. ...  (The) hope is that rather than having a balance, the democracies of the world can form a coalition that is so strong that it can dominate.

  Correct Thinking That Will Prevent Wars:

1. Reject "We used to own it" as acceptable reason to regain control by force.
2. Reject "I want my government to be the same ethnicity as I am."
3. The police (or military) of a legitimate (non-repressive) government have the right to use force (threaten violence) to capture
accused criminals.
4. The objective of the police (or military) should be to apprehend the accused individuals with as little violence as possible (use non-lethal weapons).
5. When a criminal act occurs, the correct goal is to capture and try in court the individuals who did it, not to seek revenge by killing others of the same race, religion or nationality.
6. We should consider as permanent all national boundaries as of 1950, when the United Nations became effective, except
(certain exceptions).
7. Reject revenge and hatred.
8. Give equal value to the lives of everyone in the world.  
9. Pacifism has no chance of preventing wars.
10. Wars are caused by the 2% who are homicidal and the 8% who encourage them (cohomicidals).  
11. Citizens need to be active to prevent wars.
12. We cannot be silent when massacres occur in other nations.
13. True culture comes not from fine art, music, gowns and palaces.  Culture comes from having the right set of moral rules as the foundation of society, adhering to them and promoting them, so that wars can be avoided.
14. Widespread honesty is essential for good government.
15. Morality is the basis of all laws.
16. Think "I can have an influence on the course of events."  


Chapter 5.  How Peace Defense Could Have Prevented Five (?) Wars

  Pope John Paul II should make a clear statement that Catholics have a duty to stop supporting leaders that kill.

  To prevent invasions, the aggressor needs to be warned that the victim will receive military help.


Chapter 6.  How the United Nations Should Be Revised

  It is appropriate to uphold world governance as the ultimate goal, but being practical, we need to work toward that goal in a step by step fashion, by gradually increasing the influence of the U.N., making sure that each step is working satisfactorily as we progress forward.

  Elements of an Effective U.N.:

                  International laws clearly and explicitly written.  
                  The Security Council as the governing body.
                  An intelligence gathering arm, working with the CIA, KGB, and others.
                  An enforcement arm consisting of a command structure, armies and a commando force.
                  An International Criminal Court to try individuals.
                  A means of incarcerating the guilty.

... having laws without some means of enforcing them is useless.

The best part of a collective defense system is the leverage that it provides in protecting one from invasion.  When 10 countries are going to come to your aid, you don't need such a large military force to protect yourself.  This is a system that invites a military build-down rather than a buildup.

  The United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights ... does not have a clear statement that no one shall be killed.  This vague language should be corrected and clear laws written prohibiting all forms of repression.

  ...the U.N. should require all nations to make and enforce laws prohibiting anyone from supplying money or arms to terrorists, rebels, revolutionaries or repressive leaders.

  All weapons of mass destruction should be eliminated except that the five permanent members of the Security Council should have five nuclear bombs each. ... This 5 x 5 plan will eliminate the need to spend wasteful money on SDI or any ABM systems.

  There should be an international law against the manufacture, testing, possession and transfer of materials or technical information on nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.  the member nations should be required to enact and enforce these same laws, internally.

  All nations should agree to inspections for these weapons.


Chapter 7.  The Churches' Support for The U.N.

  The purpose of the Peace Defense League is to ask these religions to revise their position statements so that support for these four issues is brought out as a clear position and not buried in or compromised by disagreeing statements that result in an ambiguous position.  This will help to clarify the thinking of the general public so that the right choices for a world system can be made and supported.


Chapter 8.  Understanding Our Psychological Makeup, A Key to Peace

  We, the whole population, need to understand ourselves in order to arrive at beneficial conclusions regarding war and all the related issues that lead us to wars.  All of us need to know that we are driven by our inner emotions, and these emotions can be misleading and even destructive.  We need to recognize that we have built-in, gene driven feelings and early-training feelings that to a large extent determine our personalities and our mental decisions on courses of action.

  In all of life, one needs to learn to control one's impulses and instinctive emotions.

  Reaching world peace requires making decisions objectively.

  Here are six basic aspects for understanding ourselves:

1. The Excitement of Any Contest.  
2. Violence vs. Tranquility.  
                  The hawks and the doves will never understand each other, unless they are taught that their emotions are a result of the juices that flow inside them.  Neither side is making objective decisions, but rather decisions based on their internal feelings.
                  ...find that most peace groups have a serious defect; they promote solutions that assume that everyone can become the same as they are.  Possibly less that 20% of the people have the genes to accept the pacifist philosophy. ... Instead, people who are searching for peace need to promote a program of Peace Defense, a system that believes in the right of self-defense, and which therefore can appeal to a larger segment of the populations.
3. The Love of Revenge.
4. The Ego Factor.  
                  Lack of respect brings violent anger.
                  Saddam's statements that he and all Arab men would die for pride is a clear signal of why we have wars.
                  To prevent wars, we need educational programs to overcome such thinking.
                  ...killing for any reason, and especially pride, is wrong.
                  The pride of nationalism is another part of the ego factor.
                  To prevent wars, we need to be willing to sacrifice ego to avoid killing people.
5. The Insanity of the War Mentality.
6. The Respect and Support for Leaders that Kill.  

When we add up all these points, we find that there is a lot of information that needs to be taught to the public that is not now widely accepted or understood.  There is a lack of information in the public's mind about what is driving his or her feelings and influencing their decisions on the war issues.  Understanding our psychological makeup is valuable for reaching objective solutions to our problems so that we can resolve them peacefully.

  Then with the public thinking objectively, they would take on the responsibility of influencing the leaders in all levels of government to implement these plans that are necessary for peace.


Chapter 9.  Testosterone

  The main point of this chapter is to persuade the reader to recognize the influence of our hormones on our thinking and actions.  It is a given that our character is a product of both heredity and environment.  (The) hope here is that by understanding why we feel anger, desire for revenge and many other emotions, we will be better able to control our responses.

  The study of animals indicates a correlation between testosterone and fighting.

  Paul D. MacLean, in his book "The Triune Brain in Evolution", wrote that the control centers for sex, aggression, dominance and territoriality lie in the deep ancient part of the brain called the R complex.

  Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's own group is superior.  Xenophobia is the fear and hatred of strangers.  These ideas are rooted in the (R) portion of the brain, associated with dominance and territoriality ...

  Testosterone makes men enjoy competing and driving for success.

The elimination of this feeling of racial superiority is an essential step in preventing wars.

  War is a testosterone game.

  To prevent wars, we need concern for others and a willingness to compromise -- attributes that are more characteristic of women.  For men, to compromise is to lose; if one of the men wants to compromise he is told he has lace on his shorts.  If women ran the world, there would be no wars.

  The upper brain, the part that makes us different from animals, that makes us humans, has the ability to control our thoughts and actions.  It can override the (R or lower) brain emotions.  One proof that the upper brain can control behavior is with the use of Ritalin. ... Ritalin ... is a stimulant that stimulates the upper brain to be more active and control the lower brain.

  These emotions that originate in the lower brain are automatic, spontaneous reactions that occur without conscious thought.

  The (R, lower brain) emotions are strong and are enjoyable, so it takes some effort to repress them.  One rather obvious indication of the influence of testosterone is the prevalence of teenage gangs.  As boys gain in testosterone they enjoy ethnocentrism, dominance, aggression and territorialism, exactly the characteristics of street gangs.

  The (R, lower brain) emotions are so overpowering that they repress the logic of the upper brain.  Men love guns because they give them a sense of power and dominance...  Guns are testosterone toys.  Guns increase men's power over others.  Yet, a gun in the home is six times more likely to kill a family member or friend than an intruder.  Logic says that your family is six times safer if you have no gun in the house than if you have a gun.  Yet, the (R, lower brain) emotion is so strong that people reject the upper brain logic.

  Gun accidents cause $6 billion in hospital and medical expenses each year (U.S. statistics).  Thirteen children die every day from a gun accident in the home and there are 20 children injured by guns in the home for every one who is killed.  The thinking, caring person would choose to have a nonlethal weapon for his protection instead of a gun.  Here is a tremendous market for an enterprising inventor.

  The urge to be respected is a powerful urge.

  Men as individuals don't fight wars for greed as much as for gaining a position of respect and honor, the feeling of being in control of others, superior to the defeated enemy.  They don't admire swords, guns, warships for greed but as instruments of gaining superiority over others, of gaining respect from others, of being strong and able to protect themselves, their clan and nation. 

  ...it is reasonable to say that one in 50 or 2% of men are homicidal.

  Einstein said that if 5% of the people would actively oppose wars, wars would be eliminated.  He later reduced that number to 2%, and I agree; that is the number that I now use.  We need six times as many people actively speaking out against wars (as there are now).

  Wars are caused by the 10% who are "cohomicidal".

  In order to prevent wars, the peaceful 90% need to muster the courage to oppose the violent ones and establish an International Criminal Court that will control the cohomicidals by arresting their leaders.

  Whatever plan you choose for the prevention of wars, it must take into consideration the portion of men who love the excitement of war, who are willing to kill and want to use war to rise to power or promote their particular ideology.  They find financial backing for their scheme and then easily find men willing to join their rebel group.  There are dozens of such groups in the world and it takes military force to disarm them.  That is why pacifism doesn't work.

  Women especially need to understand that many men are ingrained with the love of playing war. 

  As of this writing, August 1999, there are 474 hate groups in the U.S.

  ...psychiatrists should be able to identify people with thoughts of killing and we need a better system to assure that they cannot purchase or possess guns.

  ... genes have a greater influence on IQ than the environment.

  The narcissism of teenagers and their desire to rebel are brought on by genes and not their environment.

  The effects of genes and testosterone are not rigid rules.  The environment and other genetic factors can mitigate the effects.

  Psychologists say that human beings are very malleable.

  Adults are more difficult to change ...

  The desire to be respected is too universal to be exclusively the result of training.

It takes mental effort to use our higher brain, reject the appeal of feeling superior and choose instead tolerance and democratic solutions.  And, that mental effort is crucially important; it is essential for a peaceful world.

  ... feelings and desires are harder to conquer and transform than ideas or actions.

  With effort, the upper brain can rule one's emotions and behavior.  

... happiness is a decision.

  ... we can mentally choose not to be bigoted or revengeful, and that by knowing the source of our bigotry and revenge emotions, we are better able to make the decision to reject them.

  We need to be aware how violent our society is.  We are so exposed to violence, even as children, that we have become numb to it.

  We tend to think primarily of our concern for those who were killed, but we need to concentrate our thinking on where did they find so many men who would willingly participate in killing women and children, let alone the conquered soldiers.  The love of killing is more widespread in humans than we want to admit mentally.

Today, in our homes, children are being abused by their parents and at least 25% of the wives are battered.  TV brings violence into our homes.  The average U.S. child watches television about three hours a day and witnesses more than 8,000 murders before finishing elementary school.  Children are influenced by what their parents say and do, so parents have a responsibility to teach nonviolence.

  Since adults are selling these (for profit) children think that the adults must approve, so such adults are a bad influence.

  ...the urges remain and each person needs to suppress greed, anger and selfishness all their lives.

  People don't want to read about how to make peace; they are more interested in reading about war and killing.

  ...propose that psychologists should compose tests to analyze people's concern for others (empathy) and their titillation from violence (sadism). .. the Concern Quotient (CQ)...

  The terrorist lives for terror, not for the change he tells himself he wants.  He masks his desire to kill and destroy behind the curtain of a cause.

  Any plan for peace must include a means of controlling the portion of the people who love violence.

  If ethnic hatred is not the number one cause of wars, it must be a close second.

  Where ethnic hatred is strong, a pluralistic democracy with a strong peace force capable of capturing violent rebel leaders is needed for peace.

  ...one should expect that the religions ... should influence their government and insist that the police system protect people of other religions.

  Since ethnic hatred (perceived by some to be religious hatred) is so rampant, the control of this emotion needs to be seriously addressed by all who seek to advance the cause of peace.  All religions need to be vocal in preaching against religious and ethnic hatred and should out-shout the ethnic hatred movements.  

... training children in non-violent conflict resolution is the right thing to do but it will be a slow process that will take several generations. ... But part of that training needs to be how to suppress one's own love of violence.

  Any plan that relies on everyone being nice is doomed to failure.  It would take a vocal majority of people in every nation who are capable of controlling the political decisions in order to be effective.  That is not an impossible dream but one that will be a long time in coming.   

A more effective, short-term goal is to put into place an international judicial system.  The U.N...

  ...biology does not condemn humanity to war.  There is hope for peace if we humans will apply ourselves to finding ways to prevent wars.

  The ten percent who are homicidal or cohomicidal need more social restraint, more intense training that the other 90%.

  The basic theme of this book is that killing is the principle root of war.

  ...common knowledge that our genes are influencing our love of revenge and violence.

  The success of Alcoholics Anonymous proves that we can overcome even the strongest urges in our genes.  But, before AA can help the alcoholic, the person must recognize that he/she cannot control the urge to drink, and must want to be helped.

  Possibly, we need a "homicidal anonymous" with a phone number where people can call whenever they are possessed with the urge to kill someone.

  Let your "human" brain control you life.


  Chapter 10.  The Love of Risking One's Life

  Criminals are attracted to crime because the risks are exciting.  It is an addiction.  They need the stimulation of risk to make life enjoyable.

  The prevention of war requires that the non-combat people need to set up a social system that exerts strong control over those who would choose to fight as rebels.

  The message here for peace lovers is that they need to understand that there are some men who are genetically drawn to crime and that we need good policemen to pursue them.  Also, we need to clarify conventional wisdom, our set of knowledge on what behavior is moral, so that fewer people are misled by charismatic leaders with faulty plans and messages.

  Because of the excitement of war, the unthinkable frequently becomes thinkable.


Chapter 11.  What is Truth?

  There is a cure for cancer.  A cure exists; we just need to keep looking until we find it.

  Similarly, there is a set of rules, a body of knowledge, behavioral advice, that can bring peace to the world.

  ...call this body of behavioral advice "peace knowledge".

  We have wars because the public believes that many things are true that are really not true, or at least are only partially true.

  Worshipping false ideas is a cause of wars.

...most issues are such that there is an optimum amount that produces the most benefit as the bell curve shows.

  ... everything is not black and white.  ... many things are grey.

  ...there are exceptions to every rule ...  We define wisdom as knowing when a rule should be followed and when it should be bent or abrogated.

  Here are two rules that are near absolutes: "Harm no one" is the basic rule for pleasant cohabitation of the earth.  It is the basis of all laws.  "Kill no one" is the basic rule for the prevention of wars.  The basic cause of wars is killing.

  "Harm no one", is the basis of justice.

  Conclusions, to be valid, must be reached by careful logic.  A valid conclusion is one that any clear-thinking person, trained in testing the rationality of a statement and who has access to all the contributing evidence, would conclude.

  The more one knows, the better conclusions one can discern.

  Words like truth, logical and moral are self-cleansing names.  If it isn't true, it isn't truth.  If it isn't true logic, it isn't logical.  If it isn't moral, if it harms someone, it isn't moral.

  What makes a rule is repeatability...

  But in human relations, 100% repeatability is unrealistic, so one needs to think in terms of high probability.  If aspirin works to relieve a headache 60% of the time, with no bad side effects, then it is adopted as a reasonably good tool for curing headaches.  If Peace Defense will prevent war in 60% of crisis situations, then it should be accepted as a reasonably good process for war prevention.

  ... getting straight our convictions, our rules contributes to a more peaceful system for peaceful coexistence.

  ...founded on moral principles.

  ...having policemen and the FBI does not eliminate crime, but with absolute certainty it reduces crime.

  So we know for certain that a system of laws and police enforcement is necessary to reduce the amount of crime.

  ... the basic needs for people are everywhere the same.  We know for certain that people need food, clothing and shelter and that means they, for certain, need a means for attaining these.  

Since the needs are the same, the basic moral rules are the same everywhere.  The right to life and protection of the means for subsistence and for peaceful coexistence, and embracing the policy of 'all men (and women) are created equal', are essentials and universal.

  There is a lack of discussion about what should be the right policies for peaceful coexistence.  They seem more intent on enjoying gossip than on discussing what is the right course, what needs to be done.

Chapter 12.  The Psychological Roots of War

  ...we know that in order for people to live together peacefully, in a civilized manner, many rules are necessary.

  Man's loose interpretation of the meaning of "freedom" has contributed to his discontent.  People tend to think of freedom in an absolute sense.  The ultimate freedom is living on a deserted island where one has no need to be concerned about neighbors or what neighbors think.  This is of course an impossible ideal in a crowded world, so we need to define freedom as it applies to living in a democracy, and this we have done (in Chapter 17).  When people understand the limitations of freedom, they will not be misled by unrealistic expectations and will be more satisfied, less discontent, with all the rules of civilization.

  Another crucial area where men have exaggerated ideas of liberty occurs in our understanding of sovereignty.

  Accepting that other nations have equal rights is a hard pill to swallow.

  People need to adopt a set of rules that they are willing to live by regardless of the nationality of the judge and jury.

  To attain world peace, we need more people who are dedicated to promoting the unselfish political policies such as providing reasonable subsistence for all people.

  A pleasant and orderly civilization depends on the use of force to control people in the criminal fringe who break the laws.

  ...firmness in guiding the child to act socially acceptable is important, but the firmness should be flexible and democratic, rather than authoritarian.  Parents should also teach children to be generous and helpful.  These practices lead to good self-esteem and social skills.

  The urge to feel superior is so strong that people will always (almost) look for inferiors so that they can feel superior to them.

  ... ego's wishes for omnipotence.

  Here is a list of near-absolutes which are close enough to being absolutes that they should be treated as such:

1. All men (and women) are created equal (in a political sense).  
2. The basic physical needs of all people are essentially the same: continuous sources of air, water, food, shelter, space, heat and light.
3. The basic social and mental needs of all people are: being treated with respect, privacy, social communication, education, and understanding of life.
4. The moral rules for coexistence: harm no one, cooperate, help each other, and respect the laws.
5. Some crimes are more serious than others.  There is a hierarchy of laws.  Wisdom consists of knowing which law is superior.
6. The majority has the right to make the rules as long as the rules are not harmful to the minority.

Given these conditions, we can say unequivocally that the basic rules for peaceful coexistence are universal.

  The U.N.'s Universal Declaration of Human Rights are a good description of and a good prescription for the essentials for peaceful coexistence and even universal happiness.  These rights are near absolutes and should be treated as reliable aims for all cultures.

  Whether we have war or peace depend on the choices made by the control or reasoning centers of the public's brains.

  Desiring to help everyone in the world, believing that everyone should seek to be a "citizen of the world", is not widespread, and herein lies an impediment to creating support for the United Nations.  "Citizens of the world" is not a natural, built-in emotion; it is a decision of the logic of the upper brain.  For world peace, the upper brain must be in control.

  ...social order is held together by mutual concerns and rational self-interest.

  ...criminals think differently than normal people and proposes a cure that consists of a long program of teaching the criminal to think like a normal person.

  It is heartening to find that changing people's thinking and choice of action is possible.

  Kids are not enticed into crime by peers; they choose the bad crowd to run with.

  Addiction to crime is difficult to reject and the process is similar to that of Alcoholics Anonymous.  ... "A person either shuts the door completely on crime or he does not.  No middle ground exists. ..."

  The criminal is completely selfish.  He is the ultimate chauvinist; his wife is an object, not a partner.

  For the criminal, learning how to control anger is an important part of the cure.  Anger is a malignancy that must be removed.

  ...it is essential for people in the diplomatic services of the government to be able to not show anger.

  "In short, the change process calls for criminals to acquire moral values that enabled civilization to survive.  The object is to teach them to live without injuring others."

  In times of stress, nations look for the cause of their suffering.  It is human nature to not blame one's self but to find a scapegoat.  ... protect their self image ... the denial of reality...  

... ethnocentrism, segregation of "us" and "them", is common to all human beings.  People with low self esteem need someone to look down on to raise their own self worth.

  Other nations are often passive, even though attempts to exert influence may require little courage or real sacrifice from them.

  ...people who are well adjusted and in comfortable circumstances are more likely to accept pluralism and international equality.

...the 90% who are not cohomicidal need to be active.  ...  "Bystanders can exert powerful influence.  Bystanders... help shape society by their actions.  ...by their passivity or participation in the system they can affirm the perpetrators."

  We need to promote an ethic for helping others in distress.

  Connectedness that extends beyond one's groups to all human beings is an important building block of a peaceful world.

  "Social change requires highly committed citizens guided by ideals.  We need a vision of long-term change and specific small ways in which people can contribute."

  Major points of this book:

1. Some men are homicidal; they have an instinctive thought that killing would be fun.  
2. Revenge, ethnosuperiority, and competitiveness, mental and physical, are instinctive urges.
3. There are physical and mental needs that are absolutes and universal.  
4. "Don't harm others" is a basic, universal rule for peaceful coexistence.
5. Governments need coercion to keep order.
6. Governments need force to capture criminals.
7. Parents need firmness in raising children.
8. "All men (and women) are created equal (politically)" applies to the whole world.
9. We need UN and ICC with the ability to capture criminal leaders.

Chapter 13.  Sacreligion

  How can a gang of murderers call themselves a religion?

  It's men who do the killing.

  All the world's famous religions teach members to be good neighbors and live in peace.

  religion - a set of thoughts about what happens to people after they die, what one should believe or how one should live in order to reach eternal life, or to obtain bliss in this life or in a future life, especially that one should treat others with kindness.

  All the true religions are degraded when the newspapers label assassins as religious fanatics, extremists or fundamentalists.

  Many people misinterpret the instructions of their faith so drastically that they end up with a faith system that is not a religion.

  ...new definitions for a new era.

  Example - Akron Area Interfaith Council Position on Hatred and Violence.

  ... we should not be allowed to say untruths that harm others.

  ...preaching of hatred should be outlawed.  The U.S. has laws against the preaching of terrorism but not preaching of hatred.

  Proposed definition: freedom of speech, press and expression - the right to do or say whatever one wants except not to tell untruths that harm others nor to offend widely held public customs that are not harmful.

  Coerced conversions and coerced compliance are close to sacreligion.


Chapter 14.  Changing the Public's Opinion


Wars can be caused by conflicting moral principles.

  Wars are caused by a conflict of ideas; wars are the result of ideas in the minds.  Therefore there are two ways, at least, to settle the dispute:

1. Keep discussing the differences until there is an agreement.  
2. ...fight...

In the decision contest between maintaining friendship or following moral principles, the principles that are essential to world peace must win out.  The religions of the world need to stress this.  A friend who kills should no longer be considered a friend because he/she has become an enemy of the peaceful system.

  Public opinion polls reflect the knowledge that the public has on the item in question, how well the public is informed on the issue.

  ...this results in reporting what the people who are not informed think and what the people who are informed think.  The media provides no clear indication of which is which.


  ...results should be reported in a way that educates the public...

  An informed public is essential for the smooth operation of a democracy.

  The changes in public opinion about seat belts, cholesterol and smoking were brought about primarily by spreading the information through the media ...  Good information, spread by the media can change public opinion.

  The only thing that now stands in the way of eliminating wars is getting enough people to read, assimilate and support the ideas presented.

  Unfortunately, everyone thinks that world peace is an impossible dream, the plan could not be true and it would be a waste of time to even consider the plan.

  Trying to persuade someone to change their mind is a very difficult thing.

  Yet civilization can only progress when enough people change their minds so that they influence the decisions of government.

It is a dichotomy; changing minds is so easy but yet so difficult.

  ...the majority of people disagree with the pacifist position and favor instead the right of self defense.  These people will supply the military needs for an effective national defense and collective defense system.  There should be no need to draft people who do not want to serve.  An all-volunteer army is a preferable goal and it should be easily attained.

  One can say with some credibility that we have wars because the churches support such a broad spectrum of attitudes toward wars that the people can believe whatever they choose on the morality of war.  The churches do not teach which of the attitudes is effective in preventing wars and yet this is the most important aspect one should consider in selecting a moral attitude toward war.

  The purpose of this book is to ask the religions to focus on some specific morality rules that have, by historical evidence, prevented wars.  ... Defense-only is the only position that has a high probability of being effective.

  Preaching Christianity with the moral rules as they have historically been taught has not, and will not prevent wars.

  "Good works" are things that work, things that help people.  ...things that make the world better...

  If someone suggests to you that another way is better, that means he is implying that your reasons are wrong.

  One should not be discouraged if a new idea is not given instant acclaim.

  It takes time for good ideas to be accepted and appreciated by many people.

  For peace, nations must meet as equals, as they do in the United Nations, and discuss equitable solutions to their conflicting goals.  But beyond that, nations must behave as good neighbors, seeking to help those in dire need.  The United Nations is organized to do that also.  Justice, charity and defense are the three primary pillars on which peace rests and the U.N. is committed to all three.

  Patriotism (proposed definition) - love for one's own country along with a realization that the people in other countries also love their country, so to get along, we need to show respect for each nation, as long as its leaders comply with the rules for peaceful coexistence.

  ... people have a right and a duty to point out where our national policies are mistaken.


  Chapter 15.  Alternatives to Violence

  ...showing respect...

  Since we go to war to protect our egos, the way to avoid wars is to bolster the ego in some other way.

  To avoid violence, we need to seek justice; we need to show concern for the person's needs.

  ... a wonderful goal, that all children in the world be trained to handle conflicts nonviolently.

The just-war rules say that the use of force must be the last resort.  While nonviolent conflict resolution procedures may not always work, they must be given full, even excessive trials before resorting to threats of violence or actual force.


Chapter 16.  Is It In Our National Interest?

  This book holds high the idea that world peace is a primary national interest.

  The question should be not only, "Is it in our national interest?" but, "Is it in humanity's interest?"  We hold very strongly the view that world peace is at the pinnacle of humanity's best interests.

  President Truman: "If history has taught us anything, it is that aggression anywhere in the world is a threat to peace everywhere in the world.  When that aggression is supported by the cruel and selfish rulers of powerful nation who are bent on conquest, it becomes a clear and present danger to the security and independence of every free nation."

  ...political concerns greatly influence the decisions on what is the national interest and we need to be cautious about our decisions.

  Peace should be held higher than any monetary benefit.

  ...if we have to violate basic moral principles that erode a peaceful world system to maintain our standard of living, then we should choose a lowering of our standard of living.  In a tradeoff between war and standard of living, peace should be chosen, as long as we are following moral international laws in the process.

  ...a major point of this book, the importance of a good structure in society.  We need rules and a means of enforcement.  Just asking people to be nice isn't going to do it.  Without rules and enforcement, people will not be nice.

  To attain peace, we must allow the United Nations to be the enforcer of international laws.

  ...another major point of this book - peace requires that we have strong defensive forces.

  In this world there are the good and the bad, and the good decide which is which.

  Good is that which helps bring long, healthy and happy lives to everyone.

  There needs to be a balance between the three parts: long life, healthy life and happy life.

  Smoking where non-smokers are present, polluting or wasting scarce natural resources are examples of things that should not be done because they impinge on the rights of others.

  Those who decide in favor of policies that provide for a long, healthy, happy life should be in charge.

  To prevent wars, the "good people", those who follow the moral policies of equality, freedom, defense-only and peace defense, must speak out and take charge.

The rules must say that killing for any cause is never justified.  If you (as a nation) are short of water, you have no right to conquer your neighbor to get water.  If a nation has no natural supply of oil, it does not have a right to conquer another to gain a supply of oil.  Each nation must learn to exist with the resources it has .  Then it should use trade to obtain what it needs, exchanging what it has for things it doesn't have.  Of course, if a famine occurs, other nations should help provide food.

  The only thing necessary for evil to triumph in the world is for the good people to do nothing.

One of the things that make war prevention difficult is leaders who lie to mislead the public or other nations.

  Breaking a cease-fire is the equivalent of an initiated attack and the first leader to break it should be put in jail by the U.N.

  People in general are reluctant to embrace changes; they don't even like to talk about change.  Yet, to progress toward peace, some changes need to be made.

  Some new policies that this book is promoting are:

                  The U.S. should put in writing what international laws it would be willing to support and then allow the United Nations to be the enforcer.  
                  The U.N. should have an International Criminal Court with the authority to try individuals that violate international laws.
                  The U.S. and other industrial nations should develop nonlethal weapons for use in capturing criminals and controlling riots.
                  The U.N. should have a commando force trained to use nonlethal weapons to capture criminals who violate international laws and bring them to trial.

  ...wars can be caused by conflicting moral principles.  The purpose of this book is to promote a standardization of moral principles by explaining the reasons for each.


Chapter 17.  Sovereignty's Limits

  The just-war rules and the Geneva Conventions also define what a nation can and cannot do.

  We want to make clear that sovereignty is limited.

  A point that this book wants to make is that there are moral limits to what a democratic government can do even if a 2/3 majority of citizens vote for it.

  The U.N. does not take away our sovereignty; we voluntarily join with other nations to set the limits of acceptable behavior.  It is to our benefit to do so.  The only thing we give up is the right to do bad things, which are not sovereign rights.

  ...the basis of all law is morality.

  One can conclude that the purpose of all law is to keep people from hurting others.

  It is therefore appropriate to say in the definition that sovereignty is limited by "generally accepted moral principles, by the civil rights of the people, and by customary international law."

  This proves that no government, no matter how autocratic, has the right to commit aggression or genocide, to violate the basic rights of people either in its own country or other countries.

  We need to convey to the public that sovereignty does not include the right to do bad things.  It does not give a nation the right to kill all the whales or catch all the salmon in the oceans or to pollute the air or water that moves to neighboring nations.  It does not give them the right to conquer another nation or to commit terrorism.  These things are not sovereign rights.  The United Nations was formed to have the authority to stop nations from doing things outside their sovereign rights.  The U.N. does not take away sovereign rights because they were not the rights of nations in the first place.

  ...Secular Golden Rule, "Do nothing that harms another person, that injures, jeopardizes or even offends."  This should be the moral basis for all laws.

  ...philosophical position is that morality supersedes laws.  One is obligated to follow moral rules in the absence of laws.

  ...the purpose of all laws is to protect us from some form of harm.

  ...freedom is limited by the right of others to not be injured.

  Within a nation, a citizen's individual rights extend only until they reach the limits of the neighbor's equal rights.  So too, a nation's rights can extend only until they conflict with the equal rights of other nations.  In such a world, no nation can have sovereign rights as defined in the dictionary, with supreme power to wage war or pollute the air and oceans.  Likewise, no government has the right to be repressive - to have supreme power over the citizens or to be free from external control on these issues.

  This also proves that morality supersedes sovereignty.

  The laws for all nations must be universally the same.  We cannot have one set of rules for other nations and a more lenient set for ourselves.

  freedom (proposed definition) - the political condition in which choices or actions are limited only by the equal rights of all other people, including their right to be free from detrimental consequences of one's actions.

  sovereignty (proposed definition) - the authority to govern, limited by the basic rights of citizens and by the equal rights of all other nations.

  The goal of this book is for the United Nations to have a "Department of Justice" for enforcing international laws against aggression and repression.  To perform these functions, it needs to be the policeman, have a court to try individuals, and have an institution for incarceration.

  ...when advocating authority for the International Criminal Court, we intend that it should have authority to enforce those laws that prohibit aggression, repression and terrorism, issues that lie outside national sovereignty.  The ICC may be given some authority over other issues such as drug trafficking and pollution, but these are less crucial for assuring world peace.

  To attain peace, the people need to rise up and stop all this killing.  ...want to see outrage by everyone against any killing that occurs anywhere.

  An army warring against aggression can violate the territorial integrity and political sovereignty of the aggressor state, but its soldiers cannot violate the life and liberty of enemy civilians.

  The German bombing of London did more to stimulate the British war effort that it did to end the war. ... people are greatly strengthened when they face adversity together.

  Imagine what would have happened if the British, instead of bombing Berlin, had dropped food packages.

  ... collateral damage is morally unacceptable.

  ...nuclear war is a "monstrous immorality - an immorality we can never hope to square with our understanding of a just war.  Nuclear weapons explode the theory of a just war." ...Nuclear weapons are asinine, insanity.

  Furthermore, the need for nuclear bombs would be eliminated in a world where three fourths of the world is supporting the United Nations and supplying it with armed forces to resist aggression anywhere.  Also there would be no need for nuclear bombs when the defense forces are structured to capture repressive leaders rather than fight large armies.

  Dr. Kissinger, in Diplomacy... wrote that the twentieth century's greatest calamity (WWII) might have been avoided by the elimination of a single individual (Hitler).

  The sum of this is that sovereignty does not include the right to use nuclear weapons.  Our call for the elimination of all weapons of mass destruction is morally and practically sound.

  Acts of state are also acts of particular persons, and when they take the form of aggressive war, particular persons are criminally responsible.

  ...leaders who kill must lose their right to rule.

Just because war is hell, it does not give soldiers the right to kill captured soldiers or civilians.  Such actions do not bring an earlier end to the war but are only acts of frustration.

  ...soldiers cannot kill others (enemy soldiers trying to surrender or civilians) to improve their own odds, "Not that they cannot do, because that no man can do".

  First, in planning their campaigns, they must take positive steps to limit even unintended civilian deaths ... Second, military commanders, in organizing their forces, must take positive steps to enforce the war convention and hold the men under their command to its standards.

  Barbarism to prevent barbarism only perpetuates the violence.

  Revenge cannot be justified on Biblical grounds and all the religions should preach fervently against it.

  ...the only people authorized to own guns (*) should be the policemen or soldiers hired by the state, and they are justified in using guns only in defensive situations as defined in this book.

  The problem with sanctions, blockades and sieges is that the hardships fall on the citizens rather than on the military.

  Sanctions, blockades and sieges violate the just war rules against harming citizens, unless food and medicine are allowed through the blockade.  

Pacifism is not the answer (short term), but, of course, nonviolent methods of conflict resolution need to be tried before resorting to force.  

...the laws of war are radically incomplete.

  We need to move from making international judgements on the basis of moral rules or precedents to having a clear body of laws on the limits of sovereignty and what constitutes aggression, repression, and atrocities.  Only by clear, explicit laws can national leaders know the limits of sovereignty and the United Nations carry out its duty to enforce international laws.

  ... the most influential thing that the United Nations could do to bring peace would be to hold individuals responsible for aggression and repression.  To do this, the U.N. would need to establish an International Criminal Court and make some changes in the U.N. Charter.

...the world community's lack of interest ... encourages violations.

  No legal order, let alone a 'new world order', can exist on the basis of double standards and impunity of the powerful.  These are strong words and powerful arguments in favor of an ICC.

  ...the U.N. has jurisdiction over all nations on the issue of peace.

  A world federal union would be able to control the pollution and other damage to the ecology.

  A world federal union is needed to manage the regions not now under government control: the oceans, polar caps, atmosphere and space.

  A world federal union would be able to better control international crime such as drug trafficking.

  A world federal union would promote a sense of world community.

  The U.S. needs only to vote for representatives in Congress who are willing to cooperate with the U.N.

  The first priority ... is the step-by-step strengthening of the U.N.  Those steps are: giving the U.N. a rapid deployment military force, establishing an International Criminal Court, and banning all weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons.

Chapter 19.  Nonlethal Weapons


  Chapter 20.  A New World Order

  To end these fears and hatreds, the advocates of a peaceful world order need to clarify exactly what they have in mind when speaking of a new world order.  And they need to reassure everyone that there will be guaranteed rights, protected by a bill of rights, just as our own U.S. freedoms are protected.

  ...we need to build into the plan the same guarantees that our U.S. government has - balance of power and the right for each nation to retain arms to the extent needed for internal order and defense, but not for aggression.

  This writer's idea of a new world order is only an improved U.N. - one that is more effective in carrying out its duties according to the U.N. Charter.  It would be improved by using the Binding Triad method of vote counting.

  ...the United Nations does not interfere with a nation's sovereign rights but rather operates in the area outside of national sovereignty.

  ...the first priority should be to make the U.N. capable of enforcing the laws that it already has.

  In order for the U.N. to be able to finance itself, it should be given jurisdiction over all international waters and the atmosphere.

  An international bill of rights should be based on two basic moral rules: (1) that all nations have equal rights, in the sense that rules that apply to one nation also apply to all other nations, and (2) that no nation has the right to do anything that harms another nation.

  Example Bill of Rights for Nations

  The Sum of All Knowledge: What People Need to Know to Arrive at a Peaceful World System - Appendix 2.


  Chapter 21.  The Role of Editors and Reporters

  ...hope that there are many editors who want their readers to be accurately informed on all issues that can bring justice and improve the quality of life.

  ...the primary role of a reporter or editor is to present news that is beneficial to the community.  His/her primary role is education - presenting information that helps people.

  ...honesty that is a blunt stating of our negative thoughts is not the right policy for a peaceful, pleasant existence, in a family, among friends, or in politics.

  We need a widespread public conviction that says that insults are not valid reasons for going to war.

In short, the news media can be influential in leading the world in a peaceful direction by adopting the following rules:

1. The primary role of the news media is to inform and educate the public with truthful information, but without violating sensibilities and social norms.  
2. Balanced reporting consists of stating the good points to the extent they are good and stating the bad points to the extent they are bad, not stating an equal number of good and bad points and not giving undue weight to minor factors or suppressing major factors.
3. Being objective means reporting the events factually without using subjective adjectives or comments, other than to express sympathy for those who are harmed and to express criticism of those who are doing harm.
4. Conclusions should be drawn only after all factors influencing the activity are considered, only after looking at the whole
5. When reporting the words of politicians or other speakers, the writers should point out any erroneous or untrue statements, otherwise the editors are guilty of disseminating misinformation.

Chapter 22.  Peace Hall of Fame

  Peacemakers are the real heroes.

  In this Peace Hall of Fame, we are singling out leaders who moved the world toward a more peaceful system.

  ...by holding up the examples of their good deeds, we can train the school children of future generations in the right direction to go and whom to admire and emulate.

  All leaders do some good things and some not so good...

  ...states should be judged by the same ethical criteria as individuals...


Chapter 23.  Summary of Goals and Actions

  The religions therefore can have a very important role in teaching the rules that are necessary for peaceful coexistence and peaceful conflict resolution.

  The word "politics" has two meanings: "the art or science concerned with guiding or influencing policy" and "the art or science concerned with winning and holding control over a government."

  ...good government rests on a citizen population that is basically honest.  Corruption greatly reduces the quality of government and the quality of life for the citizens.

  The moral rules that ... should support:

1. Every nation has a right and a duty to defend the lives of all people within its borders.  
2. Every non-repressive nation has a right and a duty to defend itself from an invasion of armed forces.  
3. Offensive war of any kind is not morally justified.
4. Nations have a responsibility through an international organization (such as the U.N.) to militarily help other non-repressive nations who are victims of aggression.
5. No one and no government has the right to kill people except as immediately and unavoidably required for the protection of human life or national borders.  Capital punishment should be eliminated.
6. Killing is not an internal affair.  Nations have a right and a duty to protest killings in other nations.  An international organization (the U.N.) has a right to intervene in a repressive nation to protect the citizens and the right to bring to trial the leaders by the use of force if necessary.
7. Citizens should withdraw support from any leader who is repressive in violation of rule number 5.  No one should supply money or arms to terrorists, armed rebels, revolutionaries or repressive leaders.  Such support is immoral and a violation of ...  laws.  Suppliers of money or arms should be punished.
8. The revised set of just-war rules should be supported in total.  Weapons of mass destruction are not morally justified.
9. All men and women are created equal and have equal rights, with "all" meaning all the people in the world.  

To bring peace, the new world order should adopt the two main components of the Peace Defense plan; no aggression and no repression.  This new world order could be established fairly simply by making some changes in the United Nations.  The U.N. would need only to enact two international laws (or make the existing laws more explicit) and provide the means to enforce them:

1. No nation has the right to invade or attack any other nation.  Any violation of this rule requires that .. all remaining member nations in the U.N. come to the aid of the victim by sending their assigned military components of the U.N. forces to repel the invader.  
2. No government official has the right to kill except where immediately and unavoidably required to protect human life or a national border.  In any violation of this rule, an International Criminal Court will try the accused and incarcerate for life those found guilty.  The U.N. forces have the right to capture those who violate this rule to bring them to trial.  The U.N. forces have the right to come to the aid of the people in any nation where this rule is violated.

...international police forces can work.

  ...the best way to ensure peace is: 'Don't let people like Saddam run countries'.

  ...two main requirements of Peace Defense: a collective security organization that provides a prior warning and the elimination of repressive leaders.

  All nations should subscribe to the defense-only concept, should support the U.N. changes proposed here and adopt the national laws required to enforce the proposed rules.

  ...abolish a ruler's right to kill citizens for political reasons, or for any extra-judicial reason.

  ...provide a warning and prevent future invasions...

  Peace is not cheap, but it is much less expensive than wars and infinitely more humane.

  Commercial considerations must be subordinate to moral considerations if the U.N. is to succeed.

  Deciding whom to side with is a difficult problem.  All sides were guilty ... But this is not unusual.  ...we should not expect to side with a government that is blameless.

  The U.N. should seek to find some "clean" leaders and advise them that they will be given military support if they pledge to seek a government that allows freedom of religion and no ethnic discrimination, will speak out against atrocities, will not seek retribution and will help to put in jail all who have committed atrocities.

  In any civil war situation, the first effort should be to determine who is fighting against repression and for freedom.

  Basing military aid on conditions of promised democratic changes is risky.  ...to progress to a democratic, peaceful world we need to take that risk and then coerce them to comply with the agreement.

  Power corrupts ...

  Citizens need to keep in touch with their elected officials with frequent letters and phone calls.

  Yet the civil hand must never relax, and it must without one hint of apology hold the control that has always belonged to it by right.

  ...build up to at least 2% working for peace, six times as many as there are now.

  One has probably learned in kindergarten the fundamentals of foreign policy: Don't cheat.  Don't lie.  Don't steal.  Don't kill.  Don't hate.  Don't seek revenge.  Be responsible.  Treat others with respect.  Seek friends who follow these rules.

  We hope the reader will be moved to embrace the moral rules and the peace plan proposed here, will be inspired to persuade others to this point of view, and will be activated to work for the goal of world peace.

  Crandall R. Kline, Jr.




  In David Letterman style, we list these causes in reverse order.

  Reasons Why We Have Wars

18. Pastors are reluctant to discuss peace issues.  
17. People's thinking is controlled by old ideas that are half truths.
16. People are squeamish about having to fight a war to defend themselves.  They would rather cross their fingers and hope they are not attacked.
15. Peace groups seek disarmament rather than building a security system.
14. People don't want to discuss or accept new ideas.
13. The "Our friends can do no wrong" syndrome.
12. The men's code of honor, "I would rather die than let the other side win."
11. All the dead people who were killed in wars are not here to vote against another war.
10. Naivety - people think that by being peaceful themselves, other people will be peaceful.
9. Over Optimism - we believe that we don't have to be concerned -- good people will be elected who will guide us in thright path.
8. People don't take the time to study the issues and come out on the right side.
7. We give respect to nations with the most military power and not to nations or leaders who promote peace.
6. We honor people who kill for political reasons.
5. Too many people prefer revenge to peace and believe that lethal retribution (as in capital punishment) is justifiable and morally acceptable.
4. People make decisions based on gut feelings rather than on rational thought.
3. People have too much confidence in their elected leaders and too little confidence in their own judgement.
2. Ego - people have their ego to bolster.  Some prefer death to a loss of pride.
1. Fatalism - people think that nothing can be done, that it is useless to try to change governments to prevent wars.




What People Need to Know to Arrive at a Peaceful World System

  If 2% of the people in the larger nations would hold these convictions and actively speak out to their governments in support of these, world peace could be attained.

1. Defense Only - Nations have a right to defend themselves but not commit aggression.  
2. Collective Defense - When defense-only nations join a mutual defense pact, security is greatly increased.
3. Peace Defense - Killing within a nation is not an 'internal affair'.  The U.N. has the right to enforce no-killing laws (Genocide, Terrorism and Human Rights Conventions) if the local government fails to do so.  Freedom fighters are criminals unless they are trying to overthrow a government that is repressive - that controls by killing political dissidents.
4. Golden Rule - ... A secular golden rule of morality should be: "Do nothing that harms another person, that injures, jeopardizes or even offends."  So the correct definitions of 'sovereignty' and 'freedom' are:

sovereignty - the authority to form and change the government of a state or other political unit and to govern it in internal and external affairs, limited by generally accepted moral principles, by the civil rights of the people, by customary international law, and by applicable international treaties (including the Charter of the United Nations)

freedom- the political condition in which one's choices or actions are limited only by the equal rights of all other people, including their right to be free from detrimental consequences of one's actions.

As a result of these convictions, we support the following system elements:

1. The U.N. needs to be able to enforce its laws against aggression, genocide and terrorism.

a) The U.N. needs to have in place a command staff and troops held in reserve by member nations prepared for rapid deployment in U.N. service. 
b) The U.N. needs an International Criminal Court to try individual criminal leaders.
c) The U.N. needs the authority to have individual criminals arrested and brought to trial.
d) The U.N. should promote the development of nonlethal weapons.

2. The U.N. needs to adopt a "bill of rights" for nations.  This is necessary to insure that the U.N. will not infringe on sovereign rights.

3. The U.N. should have jurisdiction over the seas and the atmosphere, so it can:

a) Make laws to protect these from pollution and can fine polluters.  
b) Make laws to control the resources in them.  It can issue licenses for fishing and mining the oceans.
c) Police the seas and atmosphere to assure the safety of travellers and compliance with the rules.

4. The democracies of the world need to form a political party with all of these elements in their platform.  Together, they would have enough votes to control the U.N. Security Council and General Assembly, and be able to guide the U.N. according to these plans.

5. Real security requires the elimination of nuclear weapons.  Their use would destroy innocent lives.  They are so inhumane, like poison gas, they should never be used.  The U.N. should enforce a ban on all weapons of mass destruction.  All weapons grade fissionable material should be locked up and guarded so there is no possibility of illicit trade.  Instead of mass destruction, our defense should focus on the capture of criminal leaders.

  (We recommend this Appendix be copied and distributed at meetings...)"  



NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)  September 11, 2001: Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapy by Dr. Johan Galtung - 5 Star Must Reading - Attached please find an analysis of the global conflict at the root of the events of September 11, and a list of strategies to prevent terrorism, by Johan Galtung, the founder and director of TRANSCEND, a global peace and development network.  It will be a chapter in the second revised edition of "Searching for Peace: the Road to TRANSCEND" by Johan Galtung, Carl G. Jacobsen and Kai Frithjof Brand-Jacobsen, being published by Pluto Press in London early next year.  You are welcome to share it widely, also with news organizations.

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