WHITHER A UNIVERSITY PEACE ACADEMY?
Ring out the thousand wars of old,
Ring in the thousand years of peace!
C Alfred, Lord Tennyson
A REPORT by JOHN MUNRO (with minor editing for public presentation)
5 July 1999
One must assume that no one will take issue with the statement that the 20th century was the bloodiest in recorded human history: 180 million dead by war, revolution, or other atrocity. One must assume also that, apart from those who see the apocalypse as answer to some divine purpose, no otherwise sane person would wish the 21st century to equal or better the record of its predecessor. The very existence of 34,000 nuclear bombs and warheads in the arsenals of Russia (21,000), the United States (11,500), France (450), China (400), Britain (260), Israel (100-200), India (60-80), and Pakistan (15-25) portends the end to all life on our planet. What, one may ask, would have been the consequences these last few months had Yugoslavia possessed even a single suitcase-sized thermonuclear device? Certainly, all responsible human beings need to work to abolish nuclear weapons. More, however, is required if we are to bring an end to the wanton slaughter of our species and the dismantling of our civilizations. We must find ways not only to prevent wars between states, but to facilitate peaceful change within them. Anything, however seemingly small, that contributes to this process is to be welcomed. Individual efforts are important. So too are institutional (especially university) commitments if they can help harness the creative energies of our citizenry in common cause, and dialogue for peace.
COPRED, the United States-based Consortium on Peace Research, Education and Development, with some justification, proclaims itself a "hub for over 300 university degree programs in the study of peace and nonviolence around the world." COPRED's 1995-1996 Global Directory of Peace Studies - one of the more useful references in the Peace And Conflict Studies (PACS) field (Barbara Wein, editor) - lists 136 colleges and universities in the United States alone with institutionally sanctioned peace studies programs, although one expert in the field estimated that, a decade ago, more than twice that many post-secondary institutions offered some peace study courses, any number of which required nothing more than the decision of an individual instructor to bring them into being.
It is important to underline that PACS, because of its emphasis on alternatives to armed conflict and violence, is distinct from what might be termed "Grim Reaper" studies - traditionally taught core courses in international relations, strategic studies, and foreign or defence policy. PACS, with its post-Cold War shift from negative peace (the absence of armed conflict) to positive peace (the absence of oppression, exploitation, social injustice and structural violence), might now include among its course offerings:
War, conflict, and peace in the post-Cold War era; the new nuclear agenda; north south relations; conflict resolution; international law; psychology and peace; the economics of peace and security; development, debt, and global poverty; the environment, population growth, and resource scarcity; human rights; race, ethnicity, and conflict; feminist perspectives on peace, militarism, and political violence; nonviolence, peace movements, and social activism.
Because PACS is not a discipline in itself, however, it still must ask the established disciplines (such as History, International Relations, Political Science, Economics, Anthropology, Philosophy, Religious Studies, Psychology, Sociology, or Education) what answers or insights they can provide to the questions it, at least in the broad sense, has defined.
In Canada, university and college-level PACS courses are estimated at a relatively healthy 80-200, depending on the definition one employs in their categorization. This, of course, is as distinct from peace study programs in Canadian universities and colleges, which, by any standard, are too few and very far between, numbering as they do a meagre five: Mount Saint Vincent University, University of Toronto, McMaster University, University of Waterloo, and the University of Winnipeg.
Interdisciplinary post-secondary programs, no doubt, are fraught with administrative and other problems, which in part may explain the actual decline in PACS programs over the last decade. Today, there are only three Canadian universities where students can take undergraduate PACS degrees:
University College at the University of Toronto offers a 4-year interdisciplinary undergraduate program, in which 60 selected students per year complete either a major (7 courses) or a specialist (12 courses) option, plus related 2-year (Environment, Population and Security), 3-year (Environmental Change and Acute Conflict) or 4-year (Environmental Scarcities, State Capacity, and Civil Violence) research programs;
Halifax's Mount Saint Vincent University, which also offers an interdisciplinary PACS BA, and, like its much larger U of T counterpart, contains a variety of courses specifically designed to address peace and conflict issues in its major and minor programs;
The University of Winnipeg's Menno Simons College, on the other hand, given its Mennonite Central Committee base and NGO foreign-aid thrust, offers a 3-year BA program, which addresses "conflict, inequality and poverty through studies in conflict resolution and international development".
Interestingly, at the University of Waterloo, students enrolled in the courses offered (including "in the field" training through undergraduate internships with "a wide variety of peace, justice, and development agencies") through its Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies program may take honours, a general program, or a minor, but not a degree in PACS. It goes without saying that the Mennonite Conrad Grebel College, through which this Waterloo program ("over 100 PACS-related courses offered in nine participating departments") is administered has the same domestic and global social objectives as Winnipeg's Menno Simons College, but has chosen a slightly different approach to their pursuit.
Certainly, the seminal roles played by Menno Simons and Conrad Grebel Colleges in peace and conflict studies in Canada is widely recognized; as is that of the Roman Catholic Church's Mount Saint Vincent University, which, in addition to its academic programs, underwrites much of the cost (through the volunteer work of its faculty) of the scholarly Canadian Peace Research & Education Association (CPREA). The Canadian experience with leadership provided by small church colleges (some with shoe-string budgets) parallels that of the United States (where 46% of all PACS programs are in church-related schools) - which, of course, is not to discount the importance of the University of Toronto, nor the contribution of U of T professors like Anatol Rapoport, Eric Fawcett, L.T. Gardner, Thomas Homer-Dixon, and Franklyn Griffiths to the development of peace studies in Canada. Indeed, Canada's largest and richest university is the only post-secondary institution to offer a full graduate-level PACS program. There are 21 such programs in the United States.
PACS' principal peril, in both Canadian and United States universities, appears to lie in the fact that, because PACS is interdisciplinary by nature, and the number of students majoring in PACS programs typically small, in times of financial restraint, the operating budget for the development and administration of any PACS program can be, and often is portrayed as a drain on the institution's academic core. Thus is PACS itself unfairly viewed as peripheral to the "real work" of the university, especially if student activism is at a low ebb (given the absence of a Vietnam War, or a Cold War arms race - Kosovo didn't cut it). The decade-old Centre for Peace Studies (undergraduate minor, plus the Bertrand Russell Peace Lectures and the Mahatma Gandhi Lectures on Nonviolence) at McMaster University is but the latest to experience this axe (partial, but devastating nevertheless). Conrad Brunk, a pioneer of PACS education in Canada, explains how Waterloo (which has the oldest PACS program in Canada) has avoided McMaster's fate:
The fact that the PACS programme is administered by an agency [the Mennonite Conrad Grebel College] which has a special commitment and institutional investment in it also goes a long way in insulating it from the threat of elimination for financial reasons. This is the problem faced by Peace Studies in many universities where such programmes are considered "fringe" and hence are easy targets for budget cutting.
Had the financially independent Conrad Grebel College been at Trent, at Western, or at Brock, instead of at Waterloo, the PACS and other students from its Mennonite constituency would have enrolled at that particular university. Thus does Conrad Grebel College enrich Waterloo's regular departments with its students.
It is significant that in what may be seen as the competition for the souls and minds of tomorrow's leaders, peace studies falter in Canadian universities for want of adequate financing, while programs in international relations, foreign policy, defence policy and strategic studies remain relatively well funded (as do the professional agendas of individual scholars in these fields). Witness, for example, the substantial amounts of money that flow each year from federal departments such as Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) and Defence (DND) in support of Carleton University's Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, the York Centre for International and Security Studies, the University of Montreal's Groupe d'Études et de Recherches sur la Sécurité Internationale (the joint Montreal-McGill Universities' "études militaires et strategique"), Dalhousie University's Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, the University of New Brunswick's Centre for Conflict Studies, the University of Manitoba's Centre for Defence and Security Studies, or the University of Calgary's Centre for Strategic Studies. Overkill is the word that comes to mind.
Or note the ample federal funding that is also available through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) for non-traditional university international development studies programs and projects (grants that are often supplemented by provincial international aid grants). An excellent example of CIDA project funding may be found in the 1999-2000 International Internship Program of the Sustainable Development Research Institute at the University of British Columbia. The 1999 list of CIDA voluntary sector "partners" includes 50 Canadian colleges and universities. A further consolidation of this relationship - for good or ill - may be seen in the activities (1994-1999) of the Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee (CPCC), financed as they were by DFAIT, CIDA, IDRC (International Development Research Centre), CCIC (Canadian Council for International Cooperation), and ICHRDD (International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development).
In the meantime, scholars such as Mount
Saint Vincent's Larry Fisk, Francis Early, Jaromir Cekota and Theresa Heffler; Conrad
Grebel's Conrad Brunk, Ernie Regehr, Froefe Tiessen and Lowell Ewert; and Brandon
University's A.V. Naidu (publisher and editor of Peace Research: The Canadian Journal
of Peace Studies, the official organ of CPREA) have continued to carry a
disproportionately heavy load in keeping Peace and Conflict Studies alive, if not exactly
well, in Canada. An examination of university calendars indicates that
distinctive [read "positive"] peace study courses [as distinct from PACS programs] seem to be evenly distributed throughout Canada numbering as they do over 30 in Ontario, at least a dozen in Quebec divided equally among French and English language offerings, 23 in the four western provinces, and 17 in the East.
However, the authors of this study strongly suggest that because PACS in Canada has depended on "the creative work of a limited number of committed academics," there is real danger that "as these leaders retire, their programs will disappear" (a phenomenon that has begun both here and in the United States). Unfortunately, our government, unlike a number in Europe, seems unlikely to provide financial support to programs designed to explode the myth that military establishments protect the societies on which they feed, or to suggest de-globalization as a partial solution to many of the problems afflicting today's world.
There was a brief time (1984-1992) when it appeared that the Canadian government was committed to a somewhat more progressive tack. One of the last acts of the Trudeau government (1968-1979, 1980-1984) was the introduction of a bill to create the Canadian Institute for International Peace and Security (CIIPS), which was passed into law in June 1984. According to the legislation creating this new Canadian crown corporation, CIIPS purpose was:
To increase knowledge and understanding of the issues relating to international peace and security from a Canadian perspective, with particular emphasis on arms control, disarmament, defence and conflict resolution, and to
foster, fund and conduct research on matters relating to international peace and security;
promote scholarship in matters relating to international peace and security;
study and propose ideas and policies for the enhancement of international peace and security; and
collect and disseminate information on, and encourage public discussion of issues of international peace and security.
While time has not allowed canvassing the entire PACS community in Canada, no scholar with whom this author has conversed had anything but positive words for what CIIPS managed to accomplish under the direction of Geoffrey Pearson, retired diplomat and son of Canadian Nobel Peace Laureate L.B. Pearson. There was, however, some disagreement over the effect on PACS in Canada of the Institute's demise at the hands of the Mulroney government - which may be no more than a reflection of the division between those whose careers had been advanced by CIIPS and those for whom CIIPS' principal benefit had been its annual bibliographical compilations. Certainly, CIIPS carried its share of political baggage, in that it was intended as an extension of (memorial to) Trudeau's 1983-1984 peace initiative. The wonder may be that Mulroney waited nearly six years before giving it the budgetary axe. Of course, Chrétien easily could have restored CIIPS after his government came into power in November 1993. He chose not to.
What his government did do in 1994 was establish the Lester B. Pearson Canadian International Peacekeeping Training Centre in the former military base at Cornwallis, Nova Scotia. The Centre, according to its literature,
has devised the New Peacekeeping Partnership: the term applied to those organizations and individuals that work together to improve the effectiveness of modern peacekeeping operations. It includes the military; civil police; government and non-government agencies dealing with human rights and humanitarian assistance; diplomats; the media and organizations sponsoring development and democratization programmes.
The Pearson Peacekeeping Centre ... provides national and international constituents the opportunity to examine specific peacekeeping issues and update their knowledge of the latest peacekeeping practices.
However, because the Pearson Peacekeeping Centre is a Division of the "independent, non-profit" Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies (CISS), shares its president (Alex Morrison), and is funded in large part by DFAIT and DND, one may wish to cast a critical eye at its alleged peacemaking and peacebuilding concerns. CISS, according to its mandate "provides the forum for, and is the vehicle to stimulate the research, study, analysis and discussion of the strategic implications of major national and international issues, events and trends as they affect Canada." Further comment seems unnecessary.
On other fronts: What one makes of new courses in medicine and social work that address issues of intrapsychic and interpersonal conflict is beyond the scope of this report. One should, however, note the recent (1998) introduction at Royal Roads University of what appears to be a business-oriented MA program in Conflict Analysis and Management, which they bill as "holistic" and "cross-cultural" - focussing on "bi-lateral and multi-lateral disputes relating to trade, investment, development, resource use, the environment, governance, sovereignty, peacekeeping, and peacebuilding."
There remains the question of PACS K-12 curriculum development in Canadian schools of education - an area that was experiencing some intellectual and actual revitalization even before the recent tragic murders in Colorado and Alberta high schools highlighted further the desperate need to mitigate the spread of violence in our society. However, as one surveys the courses in Education outlined in the 1998-1999 universtity calendars, peace studies and conflict resolution are terms that do not often appear.
It would seem appropriate here to remember the now-defunct 1986 Peace Education Curriculum, "Conflict and Change," authored within the SFU Faculty of Education by Sandy Kalmakoff, Susan Hargraves, Helen Cynamon and Judy Witheford, in cooperation with the Burnaby School District and the Vancouver-based Public Education for Peace Society. As the Introduction to this work explained:
The "Conflict and Change" curriculum is about peace education and is appropriate for the grade 7 to the grade 10 level. ...
In a series of 14 lessons, students explore causes and results of conflict at personal and international levels. At both these levels students are asked to suggest ways in which conflict can be resolved without hurting others, and in so doing, to change the widely held notion that conflict usually results in violence. The worldwide problem of hunger is examined, in terms of its extent and causes, and the inequality of distribution of resources. The curriculum also asks students to scrutinize their images of "the enemy" and offers them documentary views of [enemy] life and of [enemy] children their own age. The lessons include some historical and technical information about nuclear weapons and offer students opportunities to express their thoughts and feelings about international conflict and the threat of nuclear war. Students are provided with a personal account of the dropping of the atomic bomb via "Hiroshima: A Survivor's Story" by Shigoko Sasamori. The actions of public peacemakers are examined, and students are asked to begin to see themselves as peacemakers and to think creatively about what they can do to promote peace.
Not too shabby: a little update, and it's back in business. And the institutional cost is minuscule.
Of course, one might argue that 1986 was a different world: that the annual Vancouver End the Arms Race "Walk for Peace" attracted 70,000 participants that year. (In 1984, when the above curriculum project began, the Walk for Peace - itself a coalition of over 200 labour, church, youth, student, professional and other community groups - attracted 115,000 British Columbians.) Whereas, in 1999, one would be lucky to get 500 people out for an event of that sort. But, so what? One could just as easily argue the Walk for Peace simply wore itself out, and that those charged with the major responsibility for public education abandoned the peace and conflict studies that had so excited their imaginations in the mid to late 1980s, perhaps assuming that this no longer required their ministry. There is no reason to believe that professional educators or the public at large have lost their interest in peace, or that they now embrace militarism and the conviction that only war-making institutions can provide security. What is required, one might suggest, is a venue to renew professional enthusiasm and rekindle broad public support to the promotion of peace. The door is open to any institution that would seize the opportunity to make a difference to PACS in Canada, at whatever level.
There is always a danger of overstating any case. PACS is in trouble in Canada, no doubt about it. Institutional Darwinism seems prevalent in many of our universities. The Canadian government's funding priorities seem skewed beyond belief. We have strategic studies to excess, but no military capability or concomitant power base of which to speak. Starving babies in Iraq, bombing civilians in Belgrade, warlordism in Somalia, slavery in the Sudan: nothing seems to elicit an impassioned public response. The left-wing Canadian Peace Alliance, which a decade and a half ago included 350 mainly umbrella peace groups, which, in turn, represented 1500 other organizations, seems to be in the process of attempting to reinvent itself. One suspects a similar fate for Vancouver's End the Arms Race society. Other organizations, like the short-lived Canadian Council for International Peace and Security, which began with some promise, appear simply to have disappeared from sight.
Not all is gloom and doom, however. In an endeavour to keep track of who was who in PACS, related research institutions, and various advocacy groups that he encountered in his research, this author began to list the names of those individuals involved. In that his investigation was limited to a few weeks, he only scratched the surface of what and who are there. Nevertheless, it is instructive to glance at the names of the 130 Canadian and 300 international peace scholars and other activists included as an appendix to this report, and to note the various institutions and organizations with which they are associated, such as Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Veterans Against Nuclear Arms, Voices in the Wilderness, The Hague Appeal for Peace, Economists Allied for Arms Reduction, Science for Peace, Toda Institute for Peace and Policy Research, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility, Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, Ghandi Peace Foundation, Voice of Women for Peace, Lawyers for Social Responsibility, Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Studies, Canadian Pugwash, Middle Powers Initiative, Global Issues Resource Center, Peaceful Canada, etc. It gives one a sense of the fantastic vitality that still exists within the field, as well as the diversity (and perhaps the inevitable duplication of effort). In this connection, one may observe that COPRED offers a number of mailing lists for sale, one of which (for $100 US) contains "599+" names of "faculty and directors at worldwide university degree and certificate programs in peace-related fields." Another (for $175 US) contains "1122+" names of past and present COPRED members. According to UNESCO, by 1965 there were 100 or so institutions world-wide devoting some effort to peace research. By 1978, this figure had grown to 310 institutions devoted to peace and conflict research.
What is more, there are organizational success stories in Canada, of which Project Ploughshares is a fine example. Founded in 1976, Project Ploughshares, which is part of the Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies at Conrad Grebel College, is affiliated with the Canadian Council of Churches, and sponsored by: the Anglican Church of Canada, the Canadian Catholic Organization for Development and Peace, the Canadian Friends Service Committee, the Canadian Voice of Women for Peace, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, the Mennonite Central Committee Canada, the Presbyterian Church in Canada, and the United Church of Canada. Project Ploughshares' goals, each of which is pursued with great vigour: abolish nuclear weapons; reduce reliance on military force; control the weapons trade; build peace and prevent war.
Complementing their support of Project Ploughshares, the mainstream Canadian Christian churches have launched an Ecumenical Jubilee Initiative "to bring local and global forces together" in a three-year program, 1999-2001, to "sound the strongest call for social justice that has been heard." Their ambitious/radical socio-economic goals, inspired by Leviticus 25, are bound to cause a great deal of debate (and no little consternation on the part of threatened vested economic interests):
Release from economic bondage of those industrial and agricultural workers enslaved in unjust employment conditions;
Redistribution of wealth to narrow the ever-increasing gap between the rich and the poor - including the cancellation of the unpayable debts of 50 of the world's poorest nations; and
Renewal of the earth through fundamentally altering the pattern of Western consumption of global resources.
The groups collaborating in this endeavour represent such power and influence as these churches still possess in our society:
Canadian Council of
Churches-Justice & Peace Commission,
Anglican Church of Canada,
Conference of Catholic Bishops-Social Affairs Commission,
United Church of Canada,
Lutheran Church-Office of Public Policy,
Presbyterian Church of Canada,
Ten Days for Global Justice,
Womens' Inter Church Council of Canada,
Canadian Churches Forum for Global Ministries,
Development and Peace,
Citizens for Public Justice,
Conference of Mennonites in Canada,
Mennonite Central Committee,
Scarborough Foreign Mission,
Inter-Church Coalition on Africa,
Ecumenical Coalition for Economic Justice,
Canada Asia Working Group,
Inter Church Action,
Canadian Religious Conference-National,
Inter-Church Committee on Refugees,
Inter-Church Committee on Ecology, and
Inter-Church Committee on Human Rights in Latin America.
Arguably the most important, and, certainly, the largest peace-related international event of the decade was this year's Hague Appeal for Peace (marking the centenary of the first Hague Peace Conference called by Tsar Nicholas II in May 1899). The brain-child of United States peace activist, and reputed human dynamo, Cora Weiss, The Hague Appeal for Peace (HAP) describes itself as "an on-going civil society campaign for peace and justice," designed to prove to the world's governments "that civil society is serious, desperate, and fed up with war." By all accounts, its conference in the Hague from 11 to 15 May was an overwhelming success. Some 3-4,000 people were expected to register, whereas nearly 10,000 activists, government representatives, and community leaders from over 100 countries showed up to attend over 400 HAP panels, workshops, and round tables to discuss and debate "mechanisms for abolishing war and creating a culture of peace in the 21st century."
Indeed, the Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st Century is so extensive that one receives the impression that every one of the world's problems is addressed therein:
1. Educate for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy;
2. Counter the Adverse Effects of Globalization;
3. Advance the Sustainable and Equitable Use of Environmental Resources;
4. Eradicate Colonialism and Neocolonialism;
5. Eliminate Racial, Ethnic, Religious and Gender Intolerance;
6. Promote Gender Justice;
7. Protect and Respect Children and Youth;
8. Promote International Democracy and Just Global Governance;
9. Proclaim Active Non-Violence;
10. Eliminate Communal Violence at the Local Level;
11. Enlist World Religions in Transforming the Culture of Violence into a Culture of Peace and Justice;
12. Advance the Global Campaign for the Establishment of the International Criminal Court;
13. Encourage Close Cooperation Between the Converging Fields of International
Humanitarian and Human Rights Law;
14. Reinforce Support for the International Criminal Tribunals;
15. Enforce Universal Jurisdiction for Universal Crimes: Building Upon the Pinochet Precedent;
16. Reform and Expand the Role of the International Court of Justice in the Context of a More Comprehensive System of Global Justice;
17. Strengthen Protection of and Provide Reparation for the Victims of Armed Conflict;
18. End Violence Against Women in Times of Armed Conflict;
19. Stop the Use of Child Soldiers;
20. Help Victims to Hold Abusers Accountable Under International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law;
21. Protect Human Rights Defenders, Humanitarian Workers and Whistleblowers;
22. Train Grassroots Organisations to Use National, Regional and International Mechanisms in the Enforcement of International Law;
23. Promote Increased Public Knowledge, Teaching and Understanding of International
Humanitarian and Human Rights Law;
24. Integrate Human Rights Protections into Conflict Prevention, Resolution and Post-Conflict Reconstruction;
25. Build Upon the Successes and Failures of Truth Commissions and Political Amnesties;
26. Establish a Universal and Effective System of Habeas Corpus;
27. Subject Warmaking to Democratic Controls;
28. Strengthen Local Capacities;
29. Strengthen the United Nations' Capacity to Maintain Peace;
30. Prioritise Early Warning and Early Response;
31. Promote the Training of Civilian Peace Professionals;
32. Refine the Use of Sanctions;
33. Strengthen Mechanisms for Humanitarian Intervention;
34. Engender Peace Building;
35. Empower Young People;
36. Support Unrepresented Peoples' Right to Self-Determination;
37. Strengthen Coalition-Building Between Civil Society Organisations;
38. Strengthen Regional and Sub-Regional Capacities for Peace;
39. Mainstream Multi-Track Diplomacy;
40. Utilise the Media as a Proactive Tool for Peacebuilding;
41. Promote the Conflict Impact of Policies;
42. Implement a Global Action Plan to Prevent War;
43. Demilitarize the Global Economy by Reducing Military Budgets and Shifting Resources Toward Human Security Programs;
44. Negotiate and Ratify an International Treaty to Eliminate Nuclear Weapons;
45. Prevent Proliferation and Use of Conventional Weapons, Including Light Weapons, Small Arms and Guns and Safeguard Personal Security;
46. Ratify and Implement the Landmine Ban Treaty;
47. Prevent the Development and Use of New Weapons and New Military Technologies, Including a Ban on Depleted Uranium and the Deployment of Weapons in Space;
48. Encourage Universal Adherence To and Implementation Of the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention;
49. Hold States and Corporations Accountable for the Impact of Military Production, Testing and Use on the Environment and Health; and
50. Build a Civil Society Movement for the Abolition of War.
Rather leaves one breathless, or in despair. All Woodrow Wilson had to do, he thought, to make the world "safe for democracy" was to win the First World War. Seems a rather easy task in retrospect when compared to the enormity of Mrs. Weiss's agenda.
Of course, those experienced in the peace movement focussed in on areas of particular interest. Dr. Hanna Newcombe, long-time peace activist of Peace Research Institute-Dundas renown, for example, attended the five meetings of MPAN (Millennium People's Assembly Network), and was rewarded for her efforts by what appeared to her to be the actual launch of a popularly elected Global People's Assembly (GPA). In her report on the Hague Appeal for Peace meetings to the CPREA annual conference in Ottawa on 8 June, she described this organization as one that would parallel the UN General Assembly, and would
recommend actions to the General Assembly, criticize some of its actions, and constantly nag governments about implementing the treaties and consensus documents they signed at the big U.N. conferences, from rights of the child to sustainable development to human rights to population to habitat.
... Initially it would have only consultative or recommendatory powers (as the General Assembly also has), later the decisions of both the GA and GPA would be binding. Gradually the general Assembly would be seen as the House of Nations or a Senate, the GPA as the House of Peoples or the House of Commons, of a bicameral world legislature.
... The basic idea is that ultimate sovereignty rests in the people, not in governments. The people must restore their sovereign power in a quiet nonviolent revolution. This is basic democratic doctrine, ever since sovereignty was transferred from the divine right of kings to the people in the American and French revolutions. ...
All this was brought into perspective for CPREA members by an e-mail from Victoria, BC's Mary-Wynn Ashford, co-chair of the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, who had been attending a conference in Moscow during the early days of the NATO war on Yugoslavia. She reported that the Russian leaders were seriously contemplating a nuclear response, and that even if they found themselves restrained in this endeavour (which, fortunately, they were), nuclear disarmament had been set back twenty years. Dr. Newcombe sensed the anxiety over the possibility of a Russo-NATO clash that pervaded the HAP conference:
The most often used words and phrases were "crisis", "action", and "there is no time left". The main thought was that the people's will must prevail over governments, that people power can actually create a benign world government nonviolently, copying the methods used in the Philippines and in Eastern Europe. My impression (perhaps I am too grim) was that a frenetic optimism was trying to mask and cover up the real fear and despair.
None of which changes the fact that the conference's initiatives are certainly worth supporting. As long as we are alive, we have every reason to hope and work for a better world. How can we be against a global campaign for peace education, or restricting the sale of small arms, or an international campaign to ban land mines, or the abolition of nuclear weapons, or stopping the use of child soldiers? Perhaps the peace movement requires the occasional naked threat of universal destruction to effect an essential renewal of ideas, leadership, and public support.
Finally, and at the risk of being crass, the 50-point HAP Agenda is an ideal starting point for any new peace institution contemplating the development of a conference schedule. It is possible, for example, that an annual or biannual week of high-profile deliberations might be followed by more modest, local (community- or student- or teacher-oriented), monthly or bimonthly conferences. Indeed, there are any number of conference permutations that might be contemplated, as there are any number of possible related institutional linkages in this regard. The publication of resultant scholarly papers or conference proceedings is a matter for separate cost considerations (although one should be ever conscious of the value placed on any new publishing venue by the academic community, and to the fact that the mere existence of same would be a major stimulus to peace research and to the creation of PACS courses).
Neither PACS nor Peace Advocacy programs would be possible without Peace Research. Each of these three (PACS, Public Education, and Peace Research) may be considered the point of an equilateral triangle. Which two support the third depends entirely on one's perspective, although this author would always see Peace Research as one of the two at the base.
As earlier noted, the experience of Canadian universities with PACS, generally speaking, parallels that of universities in the United States. More to the point, there is the possibly awkward question of whether Canadian peace research is still a "derivative" exercise vis-à-vis United States peace research - a debate that this report will not engage, except to suggest that Canadian peace research should in some measure reflect our national reality (whatever that may actually be), and not that of the United States. Certainly, it can be argued that the highly regarded peace research of the Norwegians, Swedes, and Finns is enhanced by their respective national perspectives.
It is hard to know what lessons to draw from the Scandinavian experience. It is a fact that they have a stronger tradition of peace research than Canada and the United States, and that institutions like PIRO (the International Peace Institute, Oslo), which was founded in 1959, are considered models by much of the Canadian peace education and research community. With a research staff of about twenty-five (and an equal number of support staff), PIRO publishes a book series and two international journals (Security Dialogue and Journal of Peace Research). Its research program encompasses four broad themes:
PIRO's annual budget is close to $2.5 million US, with over fifty percent provided by departments or agencies of the Norwegian government.
This is paralleled by its Swedish counterpart, SIPRI (the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute), established in 1966, which undertakes "scientific research on questions of conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security with the aim of contributing to an understanding of the conditions for peaceful solution of international conflicts and for a stable peace." SIPRI has a research staff of twenty, and an equal number of support personnel. SIPRI has a very impressive publishing program, averaging between six and eight books a year, although perhaps the best known of its publications is the SIPRI Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security (considered essential reading by many peace researchers). SIPRI's annual budget (provided by the Swedish parliament) is over $2.5 million US per year.
Finland's contribution to peace research is TAPRI (the Tampere Peace Research Institute), which was opened in 1970. TAPRI's research staff numbers twelve scholars and four secretary/typists. To date, their research interest has been centred on:
- armament, disarmament and security;
- theories of war and peace;
- Finnish foreign and security policy;
- the Third World;
- the structure of the international system;
- relationship between development and disarmament;
- peace and development research; and
- peace education.
Although TAPRI also has an impressive publishing program, it is less ambitious than that of its neighbours (and less costly).
It is important to observe that PIRO, SIPRI, and TAPRI are government supported (to greater and lesser degrees) research institutions independent of universities. All three institutes host periodic conferences on topics within the ambit of their research programs, but apart from PIRO's summer school course in peace research (held in cooperation with the University of Oslo), PACS is not a factor in their operations .
Perhaps a better example for the purposes of this report is PRIF (the Peace Research Institute - Frankfurt), which, unlike its northern counterparts, has a cooperative agreement with a university - the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University - on joint research projects and post-graduate studies. PRIF employs a staff of thirty-seven, including twenty-one research fellows and four research associates (and five professional administrators), to investigate and report on:
- arms control and disarmament;
- international organization, development and democratization;
- and mediation and conflict intervention.<
Nothing else seems particularly relevant in Europe. In Holland, the Catholic University of Nijmegen has a Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, dating from 1967; and the University of Leuven in Belgium has a Chair of International Relations, Strategy, and Peace Research. But neither university has been distinguished for its research and publications.
In Britain, the Department of Peace Studies at the University of Bradford, founded in 1975, boasts the largest university centre for peace studies in the world. Possibly worth noting as well is the Richardson Institute at Lancaster University, which, when established in 1959, was the first PACS program in Britain (and perhaps the only PACS program in the world to offer the "drama theory of conflict"). One might also mention peace studies at Belfast and Limerick, but only to record one's awareness of their existence. The same might be said of those in Australia and New Zealand. This is not to discount valuable PACS and related peace research at Bradford or the University of Sydney, or anywhere else. It is merely to keep within the boundaries of this investigation.
All of which brings us back to a consideration of the North American experience, and that of the United States in particular. It is essential to note that PACS and peace research are virtually inseparable in an American university context. To take a random series of examples:
There is no fundamental difference to be found between them, unless one is prepared to apply the Kantian dictum that differences in quantity make for differences in quality. The resources available to scholars at the Kroc Institute (courtesy the profits from several billion McDonald's hamburgers) are vastly superior to anything to which teachers at Manchester College might aspire. But, so what? Both programs are interdisciplinary. Both demand that teaching faculty publish overlapping and often repetitive research findings or perish. Both sponsor student travel, and promote student experience in international aid and development projects. Both promote public education through guest lectures. The fact that one has a graduate studies program, and that the other does not, is neither here nor there. We might in fact be looking at the difference between PACS at the University of Toronto and PACS at Mount Saint Vincent University - which is meant as a criticism of neither institution, nor of the American universities listed above.
It may be that an independent peace and conflict resolution research centre in association with a university, along the lines of the PRIF (Peace Research Institute - Frankfurt), but without the encumbrance of graduate students, is a more interesting model for our purposes than the typical British, United States, or Canadian PACS centre. Indeed the Honolulu- and Tokyo-based Toda Institute, given its "Dialogue of Civilizations for World Citizenship" dedication, might also be a model to consider. Initially, this author assumed that there was some formal association between the Toda Institute and the University of Hawaii. This, however, appears not to be the case. This Institute's Mission Statement reads:
The Toda Institute for Global Peace and Policy Research is a new kind of institute for a new kind of world, a world endowed with expanding channels of communication yet sorely in need of dialogue. Globalization of the world's economies, societies and cultures is producing serious risks of clashing civilizations but also opportunities for dialogue among civilizations. The Institute brings peace researchers, policymakers, and community activists into communication and collaboration on selected projects in conflict resolution. ...
The Toda Institute is an independent, nonpartisan, and nonprofit organization committed to the pursuit of peace with peaceful means and a complete abolition of war. In cooperation with other peace organizations that resist injustice and resolve conflict, the Institute aims at maximizing the efforts of people of peace of all colors and creeds everywhere. In helping to promote peace initiatives at national, regional, and international levels, the Institute encourages and proposes concrete strategies that can be translated into action. For the next few years, the Institute will focus on an international dialogue on four major themes: (1) Human Security and Global Governance, (2) Human Rights and Global Ethics, (3) Social Justice and Global economy, and (4) Cultural Identity and Global Citizenship. ...
The Toda Institute's 1997 Annual Report outlines this organization's initial progress:
Two years are not a long time in the life of a research institute. Yet in the last two years, the Toda Institute has achieved much of which it can be proud. The first year of the Institute's operation in 1996 was mostly spent on opening its two offices in Tokyo and Honolulu. It also led to the establishment of a global network of scholars, policymakers, and community leaders in its International Advisory Council, launching of its research project on Human Security and Global Governance (HUGG), and inauguration of its journal Peace & Policy. The second year in 1997 led to a number of collaborative international conferences....
There is no question that this is the sort of exciting institutional linkage that should be pursued regardless of the fate of any Peace Academy.
How terrible to be trite about the perilous state of our poor old world. How much worse to be insincere. Or to refuse in any way the opportunity to lessen the chances of our self-destruction. Of course, we all know this. It gets delivered with the milk each morning. Still, one feels obliged to add such urgency as one can to deliberations that may lead to furthering the cause of international common sense.
As to the options suggested by this report:
1. Peace and conflict studies courses are most likely to develop in response to both student and faculty interest (demand) should the decision be made to establish a University Peace Academy. No administration decision is necessary here, which, of course, does not preclude one.
2. Should a sufficient number of core disciplines begin to develop PACS-oriented courses, a PACS program might be considered, provided there is sufficient faculty and staff support for such an endeavour. At which point, curriculum, budget/fundraising, program development, and executive committees would need to be formed. Certainly, if a decision were made today to launch a PACS program, there is ample academic talent in most universities to make this a success.
3. Nothing precludes the immediate development of new peace and conflict resolution curricula in faculties of education - something that should be encouraged by present administrations.
4. This is a cost item, but there are options. Research can either be directly supported or indirectly facilitated. The PRIF, with its staff of thirty professionals (plus support personnel) provides an example of the former. The Toda Institute in Honolulu, with a professional staff of three (plus support personnel) provides an example of the latter. One would suspect that the Toda Institute example is the more appropriate to local budget conditions.
5. In each instance, the Institute in question must bear the cost of publication, which is an important factor to be considered. The bottom line is that there must be some publication. Otherwise the research component of the program is effectively pointless, and the goodwill of the academic community that would otherwise be engendered...
CCIC, Canadian Council for International
Cooperation SGI, Soka Gakkai International
CIDA, Canadian International Development Agency
CIIA, Canadian Institute of International Affairs
CIIPS, Canadian Institute for International Peace and Security
CISS, Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies
COPRED, Consortium on Peace Research, Education and Development
CPCC, Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee
CPREA, Canadian Peace Research and Education Association
DFAIT, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
DND, Department of National Defence
GA, UN General Asseembly
GPA, Global People's Assembly
HAP, The Hague Appeal for Peace
ICHRDD, International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development
IDRC, International Development Research Centre
MPAN, Millenium People's Assembly Network
NGO, nongovernmental organization
PACS, peace and conflict studies
PIRO, International Peace Institute, Oslo
PRIF, Peace Research Institute, Frankfurt
SIPRI, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
TAPRI, Tampere Peace Research Institute
UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
SGI, Soka Gakkai International
CANADIAN PEACE AND CONFLICT-RESOLUTION SCHOLARS AND ACTIVISTS
(*Canadian Peace Research & Education Association - CPREA - members)
*Adelson, Anne (McMaster Univ./Canadian
Voice of Women for Peace)
Afshar, Farouk (Univ. Guelph)
*Alcock, Norman (Canadian Peace Research Institute)
Arbour, Louise (Supreme Court of Canada/International Criminal Tribunal)
Arnapoulos, P.J. (ret. Concordia Univ.)
*Ashford, Mary-Wynne (Univ. Victoria/International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War-IPPNW)
Barot, Elisabeth (UNESCO)
Bertell, Sister Rosalie (Hague Appeal for Peace)
Booth, Tryna (Canadian Peace Alliance)
Bordet, George (Univ. Manitoba)
Boucher, Jacques (Centre de ressources sur la non-violence)
Bryans, Alex (ret. Queen's Univ./Physicians for Global Survival)
Barot, Elisabeth (UNESCO)
*Cekota, Jaromir (Mount Saint Vincent
Conley, Marshall (Acadia Univ./UNESCO)
*Coombes, Peter (End the Arms Race, Vancouver)
Creery, Ray (Veterans Against Nuclear Arms)
Culpeper, Roy (North South Institute)
Davies, Tom (Trent Univ./Science for
Delano, Richard M. (Brock Univ.)
Delong, Bev (Lawyers for Social Responsibility)
*Dorn, Walter (Cornell Univ./Univ. Toronto)
*Dhruvarajan, Raj (Univ. Manitoba)
Durno, Janet (Hague Appeal for Peace)
*Early, Francis (Mount Saint Vincent
Edwards, Gordon (Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility)
*Eghan, Felicia (Mount Saint Vincent Univ.)
Endicott, Stephen (York Univ.)
*Ewert, Lowell (Conrad Grebel College, Univ. Waterloo)
*Fawcett, Eric (ret., Univ.
Toronto/Canadian founder of Science for Peace)
*Fisk, Larry (Mount Saint Vincent Univ.)
Frank, Marion (Veterans Against Nuclear Arms)
Gardiner, L.T. (Science for Peace)
Gavin, Joseph (Concordia Univ.)
Graham, William (Canadian Assoc. of Univ. Teachers)
Griffiths, Franklyn (Univ. Toronto)
Grisdale, Debbie (Physicians for Global Survival)
Hanly, Charles (Univ. Toronto)
Harvey, Frank (Dalhousie Univ.)
*Heffler, Theresa (student, Mount Saint Vincent Univ.)
Holdsworth, David (Trent Univ.)
Holyk, Marcy (Women's International League for Peace and Freedom)
Homer-Dixon, Thomas (Univ. Toronto)
Howard, Rhoda (McMaster Univ.)
Kilgour, D. Mark (Wilfrid Laurier
Univ./Martin Institute, Univ. Idaho)
Klassen, Bill (Conrad Grebel College, Univ. Waterloo)
Klopstock, Paul (Artistes pour la paix)
*Knelman, F.H. ( ? )
*Kohler, Gernot (Sheridan College)
Kushner, Eva (ret. Univ. Toronto/Science for Peace)
Langdon, Carolyn (Univ. Toronto/Science
*Langille, Peter (Bradford Univ./Univ. Western Ontario)
*Latourneau, Marc ( ? )
*Levine, Cory ( ? )
McAllister, Ian (Dalhousie Univ.)
McChesney, Alan (human rights lawyer, where?)
MacDonald, Flora (Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict)
McDougall, Barbara (Canadian Institute of International Affairs-CIIA)
*McGregor, Sue (Mount Saint Vincent Univ.)
MacKay, Macha (Voice of Women)
McLaren, Digby (Science for Peace)
*McNaught, A. (Ontario Institute for Studies in Education-OISE)
Meisel, John (ret. Queen's Univ./Science for Peace)
Morgan, David (Veterans Against Nuclear War)
*Munro, John (independent scholar, Vancouver)
*Naidu, M.V. (Univ. Brandon)
*Naidu, Prema (Univ. Brandon)
*Newcombe, Hanna (Peace Research Inst., Dundas, Ont.)
*Nicholls, Peter (Brock Univ./Univ. Essex)
Odgers, Katharine (Public Education for Peace Society)
Pearson, Geoffrey (Science for
Peace/former Canadian Inst. for International Peace)
*Perera, Ranjit (Canadian International Development Agency-CIDA)
Pettyfer, Mary June (World Federalists)
Pillai, Raj Ramanatha (McMaster Univ.)
Plewer, Betty (Canadian Council for International Co-operation)
Polanyi, John (ret. Univ. Toronto/Science for Peace/Nobel Laureate, Chemistry, 1986)
Ramanathapillai, Raj (McMaster Univ.)
Rapoport, Anatol (ret. Univ. Toronto/Science for Peace)
*Redekop, Paul (Menno Simons College, Univ. Winnipeg)
*Regehr, Ernie (Conrad Grebel College, Univ. Waterloo/Project Plowshares)
Robinson, Bill (Univ. of Waterloo/Project Plowshares)
Roche, Senator Douglas (Canadian Network to Abolish Nuclear Weapons/Canadian Pugwash Group/Middle Powers Initiative/former Canadian Ambassador for Disarmament)
Russow, Joan (Global Compliance Research Project)
Sanders, Richard (Coalition to Oppose the
*Santa Barbara, Joanna (McMaster Univ./IPPNW/Physicians for Global Survival)
Sauvé, Sophie Nichol (Mines Action Canada)
Sefa-dei, George (OISE)
Sheinin, Davis M.K. (Trent Univ./Martin Institute, Univ. of Idaho)
*Sigler, John (Carleton Univ.)
Simons, Jennifer (Simons Foundation)
*Simpson, Erica (Univ. Western Ontario)
*Singh, R. Raj (Brock Univ.)
Skeet, Jillian (End the Arms Race, Vancouver)
Slakov, Jan (Enviro-Clare)
Smith, Geoffrey (Queen's Univ./Peace History Society)
Smith, Michael (ret. Univ. British Columbia/Science for Peace/Nobel Laureate, Chemistry, 1993)
*Stam, Hank (Univ. Calgary)
Staples, Steven (Council of Canadians/End the Arms Race, Vancouver)
*Stewart, Robert (Canadian Centres for Teaching Peace)
Sutterby, Mark (Project Plowshares)
Thomson, Murray (Peaceful Canada)
Tiessen, Froefe (Conrad Grebel College, Univ. Waterloo)
Toh, Swee Hin (Centre for International Education & Development, Univ. Alberta)
Tremblay, Marc-Adelard (Science for Peace)
Vise, Joe (Univ. Toronto/Science for Peace)
Walker, Rob (Univ. Victoria)
Warner, Joy (Hague Appeal for Peace)
Watkins, Mel (ret. Univ. Toronto/Science for Peace)
Watt, Fergus (World Federalists of Canada)
*Wiebe, Bernie (Univ. Winnipeg)
Willis, Patti (Pacific Campaign for Disarmament and Security)
*Wooley, W.T. (Univ. Victoria)
UNIVERSITY AND OTHER PEACE AND CONFLICT SCHOLARS AND ACTIVISTS
Abdullah, Ould (Global Coalition for
Adwan, Sami (Palestinian Conflict Resolution Center)
Aguirre, Mariano (Center for Peace Research, Madrid)
Akai, Einosuke (Toda Institute for Peace and Policy Research, Japan/Hawaii)
Akashi, Yasushi (Hiroshima Peace Institute)
Anand, Nisha (American Univ., Washington, DC)
Annan, Kofi (United Nations)
Archer, Colin (International Peace Bureau)
Baily, Supriya (World Federalist
Association, Washington, DC)
Bedjaoui, Mohammed (International Court of Justice)
Beech, Wendy (Univ. Melbourne)
Bellamy, Carol (UNICEF)
Bello, Walden (Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Studies)
Bennis, Phyllis (Institute for Policy Studies)
Bertelsen, Ole (International Peace Research Institute, Oslo)
Bethel, Dayle M. (International Univ., Kyoto)
Blanchard, Lynda-Ann (Univ. Sydney)
Bondi, Loretta (Human Rights Watch)
Borlaug, Norman (Nobel Peace Laureate, 1970)
Borries, Puja (Univ. Hawaii at Manoa)
Boulding, Elise (Dartmouth College)
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros (former UN Secretary General)
Broadhead, Lee-Anne (Univ. Bradford)
Brock-Utne, Birgit (Univ. Oslo)
Brown, Venessa Allen (Univ. Cincinnati/The Consortium on Peace Research, Education and
Bujra, Janet (Univ. Bradford)
Buntz, Greg (Iowa Peace institute)
Burke, Megan (Root Causes of War / Culture of Peace)
Bustani, José (Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons)
Butler, Lee (ret. Commander US Strategic Command)
Bykow, Alexi (Russian Peace Foundation)
Cabezudo, Alicia (International Peace
Cairns, Ed (Univ. Ulster, Coleraine)
Callaghan, Lord (former British PM)
Camilleri, Joseph (La Trobe Univ., Australia/Pax Christi International)
Carroll, Bernice A. (Purdue Univ./COPRED)
Carter, Jimmy (former US President)
Carver, Field Marshal Lord (former UK Chief of Defence Staff)
Cavanagh, John (Institute for Policy Studies)
Chalmers, Malcolm (Univ. Bradford)
Chomsky, Noam (M.I.T.)
Christ, Michael (IPPNW-US)
Coffin, Rev. William Sloane (Peace Action)
Cooper, Joshua (Univ. Hawaii at Manoa)
Cotey, Andrew (Univ. Bradford)
Cranston, Alan (ex US Senator/Global Action to Prevent War/State of the World Forum)
Curle, Adam (Univ. Bradford)
Czempiel, Ernst-Otto (Hessen Foundation for Peace and Conflict Research, Germany)
Damrosh, Lori Fisler (Columbia Univ.)
Dando, Malcolm (Bradford Univ.)
Dean, Jonathan (ret. US ambassador/Global Action to Prevent War)
Dewes, Kate (International Peace Bureau)
Dhanapala, Jayantha (UN Under Secretary General for Disarmament Affairs)
Diamond, Louise (Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy)
Diederich, Ellen (Woman's Peace Archive)
*Dil, Nasim (Univ. Nevada)
*Din, R. (Univ. Nevada)
Donhoff, Marion Grafin (Hague Appeal for Peace)
Damrosh, Lori Fisler (Columbia Univ.)
Elworthy, Scilla (Oxford Research Group)
*Erserver, Oya G. (Hacettepe Univ., Turkey)
Espada, Maria Luisa (Univ. Granada, Spain)
Esquivel, Alfredo Perez (Nobel Peace Laureate, 1980)
*Falk, Richard (Princeton Univ.)
Federman, Joel (Univ. Southern California)
Ferrer, Merci (Initiative for International Dialogue, the Philippines)
Fetherston, Betts (Univ. Bradford)
Firer, Ruth (Hebrew Univ. Jerusalem)
Firth, Stewart (Macquarie Univ.)
Forcey, Linda (SUNY-Binghamton/Martin Institue, Univ. Idaho)
Forsberg, Randall (Institute for Defense and Disarmament Studies)
Friedman, Jonathan (Univ. Lund, Sweden)
Friedman, Sandra (International Conference on Conflict Resolution)
Fuller, Abigail, (Manchester College/COPRED)
Gagnon, Bruce (Global Network Against
Weapons & Nuclear Power in Space)
Gallagher, Tom (Bradford Univ.)
*Galtung, Johan (European Univ. Center for Peace Studies/Transcend)
Gandi, Rajmohan (Center for Poicy Research, Delhi)
Gebert, Andrew (Soka Gakkai International)
Gee, John (Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons)
George, Alexander (Stanford Univ.)
George, Susan (Transnational Foundation)
Goldring, Natalie (Univ. Maryland)
Goldsbury(?), Jill (Stanley Institute)
Goodman, Rachel (Maharishi Univ. of Management/Institute of World Peace)
Goodpaster, Andrew J. (former NATO Supreme Allied Commander)
Gorbachev, Mikhail (World Forum)
Granoff, Jonathan (Lawyers Alliance for World Security)
Green, Robert (World Court Project, UK)
Greene, Owen (Univ. Bradford)
Gregory, Shaun (Univ. Bradford)
Gunaranta, Rohan, (Univ. St. Andrews, Scotland)
Gunzel, Jeff (Voices in the Wilderness)
Haavelsrud, Magnus (Tromso
Hall, Thomas D. (DePauw Univ.)
Hamburg, David A. (Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict)
Hamer, Chris (Univ. New South Wales)
Haq, Khadija (North-South Roundtable, Pakistan)
Harris, Ian (Univ. Wisconsin-Milwaukee/International Peace Research Association)
Hartung, William (World Policy Institute)
Heffermehl, Fredrik (International Peace Bureau)
Held, David (Open Univ., UK)
Herman, Marc-Olivier (Conertation Chretienne pour l'Afrique Centrale)
Hesburgh, Rev. Theodore M. (Hague Appeal for Peace)
Higgins, Caroline (Earlham College)
Hirano, Tomosaburo (Toda Institute)
Holl, Jane E. (Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict)
Holm, Audray (Univ. Hawaii at Manoa)
Ikeda, Daisaku (Soka Gakki
International/Toda Institute, Japan/Hawaii)
Imai, Hidehiko (Toda Institute)
Ingram, Helen (Univ. California, Irvine)
Isard, Walter (Cornell Univ./Martin Institute, Univ. Idaho)
Ishiwatari, Kazuo (Toda Institute)
Ito, Takehiko (Wako Univ./Transcend)
Johansen, Robert C. (Kroc Institute, Univ.
Johnson, Mathew (Brandeis Univ.)
Johnson, Richard L. (Indiana Univ. at Fort Wayne/COPRED)
Karpenko, Luydmila (Russian Peace
Keiffer, Johnnie (Univ. Hawaii at Manoa)
Kendrick, J.Richard (SUNY College at Cortland/COPRED)
Kent, Bruce (Hague Appeal for Peace/National Peace Council, UK)
Koschnik, Hans (Hague Appeal for Peace)
Koyosa, Clarissa (Project on Democracy and Demilitarization)
Krieger, David (Nuclear Age Peace Foundation)
*Kumar, Mahendra (Univ. Delhi/Ghandi Peace Foundation/Martin Institute, Univ. Idaho)
Kurtz, Lester (Univ. Texas, Austin)
Lakey, George (Training for Change)
Lance, Mark (Georgetown Univ./COPRED)
Lewer, Nick (Univ. Bradford)
Lewis, Joanne (Global Issues Resource Center, Culahoga Community College, Cleveland)
Lopez-Reyes, Ramon (International Center for Zones of Peace in the World)
Lown, Bernard (Hague Appeal for Peace)
Lum, Jeannie (Matsunaga Institute, Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu)
McCarthy, Patrick (Hague Appeal for
Peace/International Peace Bureau)
McCoy, Ronald S. (IPPNW)
MacDougall, Carmen (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace)
McGlynn, Edward J. (Siena College/COPRED)
McGuire, Martin (Univ. California, Irvine)
McNamara, Robert (former US Secretary of Defence)
Machel, Graca (Hague Appeal for Peace, South Africa)
Maguire (née Corrigan), Mairead (Nobel Peace Laureate, 1976)
Maresca, Louis (International Committee of the Red Cross)
Markusen, Ann (Rutgers Univ.)
Marsella, Anthony (Univ. Hawaii at Manoa)
Mayor, Frederico (UNESCO)
Maoz, Zeev (Tel-Aviv Univ./Martin Institute, Univ. Idaho)
Mehdi, Syed Sikander (Univ. Karachi)
Melkonian, Margaret (Disarmament and Human Society)
Mendlovitz, Saul H. (Rutgers Univ.)
Meyer, Matt (NYC Board of Education/COPRED)
Miller, Davina (Univ. Bradford)
Minerbi, Luciano (Univ. Hawaii at Manoa)
Mitsumori, Kunihiro (Toda Institute)
Morgan, Patrick (Univ. California, Irvine)
Morris, Patricia T. (Clark Atlanta Univ./COPRED)
Mulch, Barbara (Chapman Univ./COPRED)
Muller, Jams E. (Univ. Kentucky)
Murray, Andrew (Baker Institute, Juniata College)
Muthiens, Bernadette (Centre for Conflict Resolution, Cape Town)
Mwima, Rev. Andrew (Youth Peace Quest, Zambia)
Nakarada, Radmila (Hague Appeal for Peace,
Nerfin, Marc (International Foundation for Development Alternatives)
Ni, Zar (Free Burma Coalition)
Nihei, Masasuke (Toda Institute)
Nimer, Mohammed Abu (American Univ./COPRED)
Norberg, Agneta (Women for Peace Sweden)
Oberg, Jan (Transnational Foundation)
Odera, Josephine (International Resource Group)
O'Connell (Univ. Bradford)
O'Leary, Daniel (George Mason Univ./COPRED)
Olweean, Steve (International Conference on Conflict Resolution)
Osserian, Sanaa W. (International Peace Research Association)
Pace, William R. (Hague Appeal for Peace)
Pankhurst, Donna (Univ. Bradford)
Pastor, Elisabeth Gerle (Hague Appeal for Peace, Sweden)
Pearce, Jenny (Bradford Univ.)
Pearce, Suzanne (Middle Powers Initiative)
|Pearson, Frederic S. (Wayne State Univ.)
Perrigo, Sarah (Univ. Bradford)
Petersen, Damgaard (Univ. Copenhagen)
Piggott, Leanne (Univ. Sydney)
Pilisuk, Marc (Division of Peace Phychology, American Phychological Association)
Powell, Dayle (Carter Centre for Conflict Resolution, Emory Univ., Atlanta)
Puerta, Nicolas (School for Peace, Columbia)
Qian, Wenrong (Xinhua Center for World Affairs Studies, China)
Rabinovitch, Victor (MacArthur Foundation)
Ramdas, Lalita (International Council for Adult Education)
Ramos-Horta, José (Nobel Peace Laureate, 1996)
Ramsbotham, Oliver (Univ. Bradford)
Rank, Carol (Bradford Univ./Univ. California, Berkeley)
Reardon, Betty (Columbia Univ.)
Rees, Stuart (Univ. Sydney)
Rigby, Andrew (Univ. Bradford)
Riggs, Fred (Univ. Hawaii at Manoa)
Robinson, Mary (UN High Commissioner of Human Rights)
Rodley, Gordon (Univ. Canterbury, N.Z.)
Rogers, Paul (Univ. Bradford)
Rosario-Braid, Florangel (Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication, Philippines)
Rotblat, Joseph (Pugwash Conference, Nobel Peace Laureate, 1995)
Roy, Arundhata (Hague Appeal for Peace)
*Rudmin, Floyd (Univ. Tromso, Norway)
Ruiz, Lester Edwin J. (Transnational Academic Program, Philippines)
Rupesinghe, Kumar (International Alert)
Sadhwani, Gouri (Hague Appeal for Peace)
Said, Edward W. (Columbia Univ.)
Sakai, Hide (Univ. Hawaii at Manoa)
*Sakamoto, Yoshikazu (Univ. Tokyo)
Sanchez, Oscar Arias (Nobel Peace Laureate, 1987)
Sané, Pierre (Amnesty International)
Schense, Jennifer (International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law and Institutions)
Schell, Jonathan (Hague Appeal for Peace)
Schori, Pierre (Hague Appeal for Peace, Sweden)
*Sharma, Satish (Univ. Nevada)
Sharoni, Simona (American Univ./COPRED)
Shuster, Amy L. (Georgetown Univ./COPRED)
Sibyl, Nina (UNESCO)
Sid-Ahmed, Mohamed (Hague Appeal for Peace, Egypt)
Siddiqi, Sarah Pakistan (Pakistan Institute of Labour Education and Research)
Silverstein, Josef (Rutgers Univ.)
Silverstein, Robert Alan (People for Peace)
*Singh, Bhagwan (Univ. Nevada)
Slater, Alice (Global Resource Action Center for the Environment)
Slaughter, Richard (Martin Institute, Univ. of Idaho)
Smirnov, William (Russia)
Smith, Dan (International Peace Research Institute, Oslo)
Smith, David W. (Univ. St. Thomas)
Smith, Jim (Univ. Bradford)
Stonier, Tom (Univ. Bradford)
Strohmeyer, Hansjoerg (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs)
Stuebner, Bill (United States Institute of Peace)
Swann, Paul (London Human Rights Forum)
Swee-Hin, Toh (Center for International Education and Development)
Tang, Frank (Univ. Hawaii at Manoa)
Takahashi, Satoko (Toda Institute)
Takahashi, Toshiaki (Toda Institute)
Takamura, Tadashige (Toda Institute)
Taniguchi, Koichi (Toda Institute)
Tehranian, Majid (Toda Institute/Univ. Hawaii at Manoa)
Teng, Teng (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)
Theorin, Maj-Britt (Parliamentarians for Global Action/International Peace Bureau)
Thiagaraj, Henry (Dalit Liberation Education Trust)
Tongeren, Paul van (European Platform for Conflict Prevention and Transformation)
Towe, Bill (Peace Action)
True, Michael (Assumption College/COPRED)
Tsuda, Yukio (Nagoya Univ., Japan)
Tum, Rigoberta Menchu (Nobel Peace Laureate, 1992)
Turner, Stansfield (ret. Admiral, United States Navy)
Tutu, Archbishop Desmond (Nobel Peace Laureate 1984)
Ustinov, Sir Peter (Hague Appeal for
Ueda, Masaichi (Toda Institute)
Vance, Cyrus R. (Carnegie Commission on
Preventing Deadly Conflict)
Van De Bogart, Willard (International Assoc. of Educators for World Peace)
Van den Dungen, Peter (Univ. Bradford)
Vines, Alex (Human Rights Watch)
Wallensteen, Peter (Uppsala Univ., Sweden)
Ware, Alyn (Lawyers' Committee on Nuclear Policy/International Peace Bureau)
Webster, Steve (Univ. Bradford)
Weeramantry, Christopher (International Court of Justice)
Wein, Barbara J. (United States Institute of Peace/COPRED)
Weiss, Cora (Hague Appeal for Peace)
Weiss, Peter (International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms)
Weizsacker, Carl Friedrich von (Hague Appeal for Peace)
Wiberg, Hakan (European Univ. Center for Peace Studies)
Wiesel, Elie (Nobel Laureate, 1986)
Williams, Jodi (International Campaign to Ban Landmines, Nobel Peace Laureate, 1997)
Woehrle, Lynne (Syracuse Univ.)
Wolf, Christa (Hague Appeal for Peace)
Woodhouse, Tom (Univ. Bradford)
*Yeide, Harry (George Washington
Yount, Christa (Dept. Education, Hawaii)
Zarsky, Lyuba (Massachusetts Univ.)
Zins, Daniel L. (Atlanta College of Art, COPRED)
Zinnes, Dina (Univ, Illinois-Urbana/Martin Institute, Univ. Idaho)
Zumpolla, Lidouine (Pax Christi International)
The author/editor of 17 books, including the multi-volume, best-selling memoirs of two Canadian Prime Ministers and Volume six of Documents on Canadian External Relations (1 January 1936 C 10 September 1939), independent scholar John Munro is one of Canada's more accomplished, senior non-fiction writers and historians. His 2-volume historical overview, British Columbia in Confederation, Prime Ministers and Premiers 1864-1987, was tabled on 30 July 1997 in the BC Legislature as part of that province's "Canadian Unity" papers.
 For the record, lest the following be subject to any misconstruction, it should be noted that the author of this report recently became an executive member and the BC representative of the Canadian Peace Research and Education Association (est. 1966), the membership of which is "open to academics, scholars, teachers and researchers in the various disciplines related to the problems of war and peace."
 See COPRED's website at http://www.gmu.edu/departments/ICAR/copred/
 The COPRED Global Directory 2000 is not yet available.
 Linda Forcey, "Introduction to Peace studies" in L. Forcey, ed.: Peace: Meanings, Politics, Strategies, New York, Praeger, 1989, as cited in Ian M. Harris, Larry J. Fisk and Carol Rank: "A Portrait of University Peace Studies in North America and Western Europe at the End of the Millennium", International Journal of Peace Studies, January 1998, p.95.
 Authors Harris, et al., observe that, "Whether or not they [particular courses in history, political science, international relations, etc.] are peace studies courses depends upon the instructor. Under the tenets of academic freedom which govern university relations, a professor has the right to teach a course as he or she sees fit."
 M. Klare, Peace and World Security: a Curriculum Guide, 6th ed., Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1994, as cited in Harris, op. cit., p.92.
 Harris, pp.99-101.
 For benchmark figures, see, W. Brouwer: A Survey of Peace Education in Canada, Ottawa, Canadian Institute for International Peace and Security, 1991.
 Harris, op. cit., p.95.
 On average, "no more than 20 students on a campus." Harris, p.94.
 This is assuming that the university still includes within its definition of institutional purpose the creation of a better society.
 Conrad Brunk, "Peace Education at the University of Waterloo" in Douglas Ray, ed., Peace Education: Canadian and International Perspectives, London (Ontario), third eye, 1988, p.111.
 One scholar recently informed this author that a change in the designation of her courses from International Relations to PACS would result in the loss of all her research and travel grants - something she would never countenance.
 Interestingly, Dalhousie shares (however actually this works) a Pearson Chair of International Relations with Oxford University, the present holder of which is Professor S.Neil MacFarlane of Oxford's Centre for International Studies.
 The University of Calgary's PACS program in its Faculty of General Studies, apparently, was put into "non-active status" some years ago.
 See CPCC's website at http://www.cpcc.ottawa.on.ca/about.htm
 Harris, op. cit., p.100. The figures in this article do not always jibe, something not uncommon in the literature on PACS-related questions.
 One gets some sense of this in checking the dates on various PACS program and peace organization websites, some of which have not been updated for years (e.g., the Spark M. Matsunaga Institute for Peace at the University of Hawai`i at http://www2.hawaii.edu/mip/ ).
 The CIIPS library was absorbed by that of the Royal Military College at Kingston in 1992.
 See, http://www.cndpeacekeeping.ns.ca/
 See, http://www.ciss.ca/
 Copies of this valuable piece of work (v, 41pp.) are available still through the Public Education for Peace Society/End the Arms Race offices at 405 - 825 Granville Street, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1K9.
 The original, naturally enough, read "Soviet".
 As final revisions were being made to this report, there arrived, via e-mail circulated to all CPREA members, a surprising but insightful note on "Pre-Kindergarten Peace Material" from Robert Stewart at "The Canadian Centres for Teaching Peace" at Okotoks, Alberta (Http://www.peace.ca/ ) - a person and an organization that no academic to whom I've spoken knows anything about, but the source of much useful information nevertheless. Further "pre-kindergarten peace material" apparently is available at http://come.to/Rose4Peace for those who wish to add this dimension to their considerations.
 For a full report of Project Ploughshares' recent activities, see, http://www.ploughshares.ca/
 Weiss told a reporter from Reuters (Globe and Mail, 1 April 1999) that her ambition was "to introduce peace education as the fourth R [after Reading, Writing and 'Rithmetic]. And I want it to be required in every school in the world." The fourth R stands for Reconciliation.
 See, http://www.haguepeace.org/ - a website that has provided this author with hundreds of pages of relevant detail.
 Reported on various websites (e.g., http://www.peacewire.org/ ), and in news magazines like the Economist, but not in Vancouver's daily newspapers.
 One of the HAP press releases on 14 May noted almost in passing: "Sixty-two workshops are scheduled today."
 Each of these objectives is spelled out in some detail at http://www.haguepeace.org/html/agenda.htm
 Hanna Newcombe, "The Hague Appeal For Peace", an unpublished paper presented to the CPREA Conference, Ottawa, 8 June 1999, pp.2-3.
 Ibid., p.2.
 See, http://www.apsanet.org/PS/organizations/related/ipri.html
 See, http://www/sipri.se/index.html
 See, http://www.uta.fi/laitokset/tapri/etusen.html
 See http://www.hsfk.de/eng/body.htm
 Harris, op. cit., pp.103-104.
 See, http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/peace/about.html
 This is actually within Lancaster's Department of Politics and International Relations. See, http://www.lancs.ac.uk/users/richinst/riwebl.htm
 See, http://www.arts.su.edu.au/Arts/departs/cpacs/cpacs_home.html
 For an incomplete, but easily accessible checklist of United States universities with PACS programs, see the Peace Studies Association website at http://osiris.colorado.edu/SOC/ORGS/peace.html
 Founded on 11 February 1996 by Daisaku Ikeda, president of Soka Gakkai International (SGI), an association of Buddhist organizations in 128 countries. Note also that the Boston Research Center (http://www.brc21.org/overview.html ) was established by SGI in 1993 to promote civil society and cultures of peace by collaborating with universities and citizens groups to sponsor symposia, conferences, lectures, and other dialogues.
 See, http://www.toda.org/mission.html
 See, http://www.toda.org/annual_reports/97/ar97.html
 Director, Deputy Director and Research Director, and Program Manager.
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