St. Petersburg, Russia - 19 June 1999

Conference on Nuclear Policy and Security on the Eve of the 21st Century
Abolition 2000 Global Network to Eliminate Nuclear Weapons
In 1899, the Russian Czar Nicolas II took the initiative to convene a
general peace conference which was hosted by the Dutch Queen Wilhelmina in
The Hague. 100 years later in St. Petersburg, we, the participants in the
Abolition 2000 Conference, summarize our findings on nuclear policy and
security on the eve of the 21st century. These will be forwarded to the
International Conference "Centennial of the Russian Initiative: From the
First Peace Conference, 1899 to the Third, 1999" in St. Petersburg 22 - 25
June, 1999.
There can be no peace and security with nuclear weapons. The dogma of
"nuclear deterrence" led to the building of ever larger arsenals by the
nuclear weapon states.  It is illegal, immoral and irresponsible; it must be
rejected.  For worldwide security, nuclear weapons must be eliminated.
We must move to common security based on human and ecological values and
respect for international institutions and law.  NATO's recent assertion of
the right to engage in "out-of-area" operations conducted without United
Nations authority is contrary to this imperative.  Future European security
arrangements must comply with international law, encompass all European
countries including Russia, and exclude nuclear weapons.  Genuine and
lasting peace cannot be achieved by building and expanding military
Despite reductions, the nuclear weapon states still hold enough explosive
power to annihilate the planet.  Nuclear weapons have not prevented war.
Across the world and within Europe, at the end of the millennium, brutal
conflicts rage. The spirit and the letter of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation
Treaty have been broken.  By maintaining and modernizing their nuclear
arsenals, the United States, Russia, France, the United Kingdom and China
have encouraged other states including India, Israel and Pakistan to follow
their example.
In the development of nuclear weapons, these governments have brought death
and suffering to succeeding generations of innocent people and irreversible
environmental destruction. Vast resources have been devoted to nuclear
warfare preparations.  In the last 50 years, the gap between rich and poor
has grown, not least within the nuclear weapon states.  Funds have been
denied to international bodies concerned with conflict prevention,
especially the United Nations and its constituent regional organizations
including the Organization for Cooperation and Security in Europe (OSCE).
The OSCE is a pan-European security organization, representing 54 countries
including Russia, the United States, and Canada, which promotes non-military
solutions to conflict.
We call for recognition and implementation of the following principles:
1) Redefine security in terms of peoples rather than states, where
protection of human health and preservation of the natural environment have
overriding priority;
2) Support and strengthen the role of the United Nations, which was created
after World War II to resolve international disputes peacefully;
3) Place new emphasis on regional security organizations, such as OSCE,
acting under Chapter VIII of the UN Charter and using political rather than
military tools for conflict resolution;
4) Uphold and apply international law in a consistent and non-discriminatory
5) Recognize the link between nuclear energy and proliferation, and give
high priority to energy conservation and development of alternative energy

The following urgent measures are needed to implement these principles,
which should be taken simultaneously and in parallel:
1) Massively increased funding and resources for OSCE; transparency and
democracy in the creation of  its forthcoming "Charter for European Security
in the 21st Century" with the full involvement of civil society;
2) Taking all nuclear forces off alert status through coordinated measures
lowering their readiness for use, including separation of warheads from
delivery systems and withdrawal of nuclear-armed submarines from patrol;
3) Removal of US nuclear weapons from Europe back to the United States;
4) Initiation of parallel, reciprocal actions between the United States and
Russia to de-alert, reduce, and account for warheads and fissile materials,
bypassing the blocked START process;
5) Commencement of multilateral negotiations on the elimination of nuclear
weapons to culminate in a comprehensive treaty. These negotiations could
incorporate or be conducted in parallel with negotiations on interim steps
including no first-use and no modernization pledges and a fissile materials
6) Reduction and elimination of nuclear weapons research and development
infrastructures and capabilities. This process should accompany the
reduction and elimination of warheads and delivery systems.  It will require
a new emphasis on development of societal verification methods;
7) Reduction and elimination of other weapons of mass destruction and/or
indiscriminate effect, including depleted uranium, cluster bombs, and land

In conclusion, we strongly endorse the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights, as echoed in the words of UN Secretary General Kofi Annan:  "Today
security is increasingly understood not just in military terms, and as far
more than the absence of conflict.  It is in fact a phenomenon that
encompasses economic development, social justice, environmental protection,
democratization, disarmament and respect for human rights.  These goals-
these pillars of peace-are interrelated.  Progress in one area begets
progress in another.  But no country can get there on its own.  And none is
exempt from the risks and costs of doing without... The world today spends
billions preparing for war; shouldn't we spend a billion or two preparing
for peace?"

Conference on Nuclear Policy and Security on the Eve of the 21st Century
Abolition 2000 Global Network to Eliminate Nuclear Weapons
St. Petersburg, Russia 18 - 20 June 1999
Host Organisations:
St. Petersburg Peace Council
Russian Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (RPPNW)
Finnish Peace Committee
International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW Germany)
Swedish Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW Sweden)
International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global Responsibility
With support from the Heinrich Böll Foundation, Germany, and the Finnish
Foreign Ministry
Vera Brovkina, St. Petersburg Peace Council Russia
Boris Bondarenko, RPPNW Russia
Terttu Ahokas, Finnish Peace Committee Finland
Karl-Otto Aly, IPPNW Sweden Sweden
Klaus Arnung, IPPNW Denmark Denmark
Jørgen Madsen, United Nations Association Denmark
Janet Bloomfield, Oxford Research Group UK
Richard Bloomfield UK
Bernice Boermans, International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms
John Burroughs, Lawyers' Committee on Nuclear Policy USA
Jacqueline Cabasso, Western States Legal Foundation USA
Tobias Damjanov, INES Germany
Aurel Duta, For Mother Earth Romania
Michel Fernex, Physicians for Social Responsibility/IPPNW Switzerland
Solange Fernex, Womens International League for Peace and Freedom France
Majlis Fridén, Swedish Peace Council Sweden
Robert Green, World Court Project UK
Margareta Gustaffson, IPPNW Sweden Sweden
Xanthe Hall, IPPNW Germany Germany/UK
Anna Hellman, IPPNW Sweden Sweden
Rebecca Johnson, Acronym Institute UK
Alexander Kemnade, IPPNW Germany Germany
Lars Pohlmeier, IPPNW Germany Germany
Lena Pohlmeier Germany/Russia
Ira Kiessliech-Köcher, Assistant to Elisabeth Schroedter, MEP Germany
Helmut Krause, IPPNW Germany Germany
Lars Lindskog, IPPNW Sweden Sweden
Christine Vigre Lundius, IPPNW Sweden Sweden
Klas Lundius, IPPNW Sweden Sweden
Alistair Millar, Fourth Freedom Forum USA/UK
Otfried Nassauer, Berlin Information Centre for Transatlantic Security
Carin Odhner, IPPNW Sweden Sweden
Eva Olivecrona, IPPNW Sweden Sweden
Ramoa Maria Piciu, For Mother Earth Romania
Sharon Riggle, Centre for European Security and Disarmament Belgium/USA
Heinz - P. Romberg, IPPNW Germany Germany
Alice Slater, Global Resource Action Center for the Environment USA
Rae Street, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament UK
Frida Sundberg, IPPNW Sweden Sweden
Gunnar Westberg, IPPNW Sweden Sweden
Bo Wirmark, Swedish Peace Council Sweden
Olga Andriyanova, RPPNW Russia
Natalya Antonuk, Women for the Future Ukraine
Anastasija Bitiukova, Lithuanian Christian Fund College Lithuania
Tatiana Blazhkevich, Women for the Future Ukraine
Rimvydas Cepurna Lithuania
Rima Cepurniene Lithuania
Marta Dargyte Lithuania
Roman Dolgov, RPPNW Russia
Julia Dubchak, Women for the Future Ukraine
Ntatalya Farion, Women for the Future Ukraine
Lev Feoktistov Russia
Aleksandra Feoktistova Russia
Tomas Giedraitis, Lithuanian Peace Forum Lithuania
Halina Girnyak, Women for the Future Ukraine
Simo Granat, Physicians for Social Responsibility Finland
Zivile Januskaite, student, Vilnius University Lithuania
Malla Kantola, Committee of 100 Finland
Pekka Koskinen, Finnish Peace Committee Finland
Aldona Kucinskaite Lithuania
Laura Lodenius, Peace Union Finland
Teemu Matinpuro, Finnish Peace Commitee Finland
Arvydas Paldavicius, student, Vilnius University Lithuania
Mikhail Pogorely, National Press Institute Russia
Voctorya Ponomarenko, Women for the Future Ukraine
Lydia Popova, Socio-Ecological Union Russia
Natalya Romaniv, Women for the Future Ukraine
Irene Rumyantseva, RPPNW Russia
Ivan Safrantchouk, PIR Center Russia
Patrick Sandström, Physicians for Social Responsibility Finland
Ilkka Taipale, Physicians for Social Responsibility Finland
Tatiana Tkachenko, Women for the Future Ukraine
Olga Tkchachenko, Women for the Future Ukraine
Vera Velychko, Women for the Future Ukraine
Alla Yaroshinskaya, INES Russia
Irina Yatsunenko, National Press Institute Russia
Alexander Yemelyenenkov, RPPNW Russia
Vladimir Iakimets, Russian Academy of Sciences/ Russia
Center for Russia Environmental Science
Contact Organisations:
IPPNW Germany; Xanthe Hall, Co-Director
Körtestraße 10; D-10967; Berlin, Germany
Tel: 030/693 02 44; Fax: 030/693 8166; E-mail:

St. Petersberg Peace Council; Vera Brovkina, Chairperson
21, Fontanka; House of Friendship and Peace
St. Petersberg, 191011, Russia
Tel: (812) 210-45-13; Fax: (812) 314-83-21; E-mail: