"Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower"  by William Blum

from a website devoted to  this  book.

William Blum left the State Department in 1967, abandoning
his aspiration of becoming a Foreign Service Officer, because of
his opposition to what the United States was doing in Vietnam.
He then became one of the founders and editors of the
Washington Free Press, the first "underground" newspaper in the

This book is " a mini-encyclopedia of the numerous
un-humanitarian acts perpetrated by the United States since the end
of the Second World War."

"As I write this in Washington, D.C., in April 1999, the
United States is busy saving Yugoslavia.  Bombing a modern,
sophisticated society back to a pre-industrial age.  And The
Great American Public, in its infinite wisdom, is convinced that
its government is motivated by "humanitarian" impulses."

Five  chapters of this new  book by William Bloom have URL's to
complete text. I have included these URLs in the Table of Contents
below and as well have inserted  Chapter 19 at the end of this e-mail
 for your possible interest.

Ckapter 19. Trojan Horse: The National Endowment for Democracy [NED]

"The NED, like the CIA before it, calls what it does supporting
democracy.  The governments and movements whom the NED targets call
it destabilization. "

courtesy of Janet Eaton

Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower
by William Blum, author of Killing Hope:US Military and CIA
Interventions Since World War 2


If you believed that the NATO (read U.S.) bombing of Yugoslavia for 78
days and nights in 1999 was a "humanitarian" act, Rogue State
hopefully can serve as a wake-up call to both your intellect and your
conscience.  It is a mini-encyclopedia of the numerous un-humanitarian
acts perpetrated by the United States since the end of the Second
World War.

Never before in modern history has a country dominated the earth so
totally as the United States does today. America is now the
Schwarzenegger of international politics: showing off muscles,
obtrusive, intimidating. The Americans, in the absence of limits put
to them by anybody or anything, act as if they own a kind of blank
check in their  McWorld. Der Spiegel, Germany's leading newsmagazine,

The United States is good. We try to do our best everywhere. Madeleine
Albright, 1999                     

A world once divided into two armed camps now recognizes one sole and
pre-eminent power, the United States of America.  And they regard
this with no dread.  For the world trusts us with power, and the
world is right.  They trust us to be fair, and restrained. They
trust us to be on the side of decency.  They trust us to do what's
right. George Bush, 1992

How can they have the arrogance to dictate to us where we should go
or which countries should be our friends?  Gadhafi is my friend.  He
supported us when we were alone and when those who tried to prevent
my visit here today were our enemies.  They have no morals.  We
cannot accept that a state assumes the role of the world's
policeman. Nelson Mandela, 1997

When I came into office, I was determined that our country would go
into the 21st century still the world's greatest force for peace and
freedom, for democracy and security and prosperity. Bill Clinton, 1996

Throughout the world, on any given day, a man, woman or child is
likely to be displaced, tortured, killed or "disappeared", at the
hands of governments or armed political groups.  More often than
not, the United States shares the blame. Amnesty International,

"Rogue State forcibly reminds us of Vice President Agnew's
immortal line:  'The United States, for all its faults, is still the
greatest nation in the country'." Gore Vidal, author, The Decline and
Fall of the American Empire

"Critics will call this a one-sided book. But it is an
invaluable corrective to the establishment portrait of
America as the world's greatest force for peace.  Even
confirmed opponents of U.S. interventionism can find
much in this important book that will both educate and
shock them."
    Peter Dale Scott, former Professor at UC Berkeley,
    poet, and author, Deep Politics and The Death of JFK

"Bill Blum came by his title easily.  He simply tested
America by the same standards we use to judge other
countries. The result is a bill of wrongs -- an especially
well-documented encyclopedia of malfeasance, mendacity
and mayhem that has been hypocritically carried out in the
name of democracy by those whose only true love was power."
    Sam Smith, Editor, The Progressive Review, Washington, DC

"Bravo Blum! A vivid, well-aimed critique of the evils of US
global interventionism, a superb antidote to officialdom's
lies and propaganda."
  Michael Parenti, author, History as Mystery and To Kill
  a Nation: The Attack on Yugoslavia


See Table of Contents and read selected chapters below

Rogue State was published in 2000 by Common Courage Press, Monroe,
Maine 308 pages, fully documented and indexed For a copy signed to
you personally, and shipped immediately, send a check to:

William Blum, 5100 Connecticut Ave., NW, #707, Washington, DC

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Table of Contents

Introduction [can be found in entirety at]

Ours and Theirs: Washington's love/hate relationship
with terrorists and human rights violators:

1. Why do terrorists keep picking on the United States?
2. America's gift to the world -- the Afghan terrorist alumni
3. Assassinations
4. Excerpts from US Army and CIA training manuals
5. Torture
6. The Unsavories
7. Training new unsavories
8. War criminals: Theirs and Ours
9. Haven for terrorists
10. Supporting Pol Pot

United States Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction:
11. Bombings
12. Depleted Uranium
13. Cluster bombs
14. Chemical and Biological Weapons abroad
15. Chemical and Biological Weapons at home
16. Encouraging the use of CBW by other nations

A Rogue State versus the world:
17. A Concise History of US Global Interventions, 1945--present
18. Perverting elections
19. Trojan Horse: The National Endowment for Democracy
20. The US versus the world at the United Nations
21. Eavesdropping on the planet
22. Kidnapping and looting
23. How the CIA sent Nelson Mandela to prison for 28 years
24. The CIA and Drugs: Just say Why Not?
25. Being the World's Only Superpower means never having to say
    you are sorry
26. The US invades, bombs and kills for it ... but do Americans
    really believe in free enterprise?
27. A Day in the life of a free country ... or ... How does the
    United States get away with it?

About the author

To read parts of William Blum's other book, Killing Hope:
US Military and CIA Interventions Since World War 2,
as well as some of his essays, click here.

return to beginning
return to order book

Chapter 19. Trojan Horse: The National Endowment for Democracy

go to end

                          Trojan Horse
        The National Endowment for Democracy

How many Americans could identify the National Endowment for
Democracy?  An organization which often does exactly the opposite of
what its name implies.  The NED was set up in the early 1980s under
President Reagan in the wake of all the negative revelations about the
CIA in the second half of the 1970s.  The latter was a remarkable
period.  Spurred by Watergate -- the Church committee of the Senate,
the Pike committee of the House, and the Rockefeller Commission,
created by the president, were all busy investigating the CIA.
Seemingly every other day there was a new headline about the discovery
of some awful thing, even criminal conduct, the CIA had been mixed up
in for years.  The Agency was getting an exceedingly bad name, and it
was causing the powers-that-be much embarrassment. 
     Something had to be done.  What was done was not to stop
doing these awful things.  Of course not.  What was done was
to shift many of these awful things to a new organization, with
a nice sounding name -- The National Endowment for Democracy.
The idea was that the NED would do somewhat overtly what the CIA
had been doing covertly for decades, and thus, hopefully,
eliminate the stigma associated with CIA covert activities.
    It was a masterpiece.  Of politics, of public relations,
and of cynicism.
     Thus it was that in 1983, the National Endowment for
Democracy was set up to "support democratic institutions
throughout the world through private, nongovernmental efforts".
Notice the "nongovernmental" -- part of the image, part of the
myth.  In actuality, virtually every penny of its funding comes
from the federal government, as is clearly indicated in the
financial statement in each issue of its annual report.  NED
likes to refer to itself as an NGO (Non-governmental
organization) because this helps to maintain a certain
credibility abroad that an official US government agency might
not have.  But NGO is the wrong category.  NED is a GO.
     Allen Weinstein, who helped draft the legislation
establishing NED, was quite candid when he said in 1991: "A lot
of what we do today was done covertly 25 years ago by the
CIA."{1} In effect, the CIA has been laundering money through
     The Endowment has four principal initial recipients of
funds: the International Republican Institute; the National
Democratic Institute for International Affairs; an affiliate of
the AFL-CIO (such as the American Center for International Labor
Solidarity); and an affiliate of the Chamber of Commerce (such as the
Center for International Private Enterprise). These institutions then
disburse funds to other institutions in the US and all over the world,
which then often disburse funds to yet other organizations.
     In a multitude of ways, NED meddles in the internal affairs
of foreign countries by supplying funds, technical know-how,
training, educational materials, computers, faxes, copiers,
automobiles, and so on, to selected political groups, civic
organizations, labor unions, dissident movements, student groups, book
publishers, newspapers, other media, etc.  NED programs generally
impart the basic philosophy that working people and other citizens are
best served under a system of free enterprise, class cooperation,
collective bargaining, minimal government intervention in the economy,
and opposition to socialism in any shape or form.  A free-market
economy is equated with democracy, reform, and growth; and the merits
of foreign investment are emphasized.
     From 1994 to 1996, NED awarded 15 grants, totaling more than
$2,500,000, to the American Institute for Free Labor Development, an
organization used by the CIA for decades to subvert progressive labor
unions.{2}  AIFLD's work within Third World unions typically involved
a considerable educational effort very similar to the basic NED
philosophy described above.  The description of one of the 1996 NED
grants to AIFLD includes as one its objectives: "build
union-management cooperation".{3} Like many things that NED says, this
sounds innocuous, if not positive, but these in fact are ideological
code words meaning "keep the labor agitation down ... don't rock the
status-quo boat".  The relationship between NED and AIFLD very well
captures the CIA origins of the Endowment.{4}
     NED has funded centrist and rightist labor organizations to
help them oppose those unions which were too militantly pro-worker.
This has taken place in France, Portugal and Spain amongst many other
places.  In France, during the 1983-4 period, NED supported a "trade
union-like organization for professors and students" to counter
"left-wing organizations of professors".  To this end it funded a
series of seminars and the publication of posters, books and pamphlets
such as "Subversion and the Theology of Revolution" and "Neutralism or
Liberty".{5}  ("Neutralism" here refers to being unaligned in the cold
     NED describes one of its 1997-98 programs thusly: "To
identify barriers to private sector development at the local and
federal levels in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and to push
for legislative change ... [and] to develop strategies for
private sector growth."{6}  Critics of Yugoslav President
Slobodan Milosevic have been supported by NED grants for
     In short, NED's programs are in sync with the basic needs
and objectives of the New World Order's economic globalization,
just as the programs have for years been on the same wavelength
as US foreign policy. 
     Because of a controversy in 1984 -- when NED funds were used to
aid a Panamanian presidential candidate backed by Manuel Noriega and
the CIA -- Congress enacted a law prohibiting the use of NED funds "to
finance the campaigns of candidates for public office."  But the ways
to circumvent the spirit of such a prohibition are not difficult to
come up with; as with American elections, there's "hard money" and
there's "soft money".
     As described in the "Elections" and "Interventions"
chapters, NED successfully manipulated elections in Nicaragua in
1990 and Mongolia in 1996, helped to overthrow democratically
elected governments in Bulgaria in 1990 and Albania in 1991 and
1992, and was busy working in Haiti in the late 1990s on behalf
of right wing groups who were united in their opposition to
former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide and his progressive
ideology.{8} NED has made its weight felt in the electoral-
political process in numerous other countries. 
     NED would have the world believe that it's only teaching the ABCs
of democracy and elections to people who don't know them, but in all
five countries named above there had already been free and fair
elections held.  The problem, from NED's point of view, is that the
elections had been won by political parties not on NED's favorites
     The Endowment maintains that it's engaged in "opposition
building" and "encouraging pluralism".  "We support people who
otherwise do not have a voice in their political system," said
Louisa Coan, a NED program officer.{9}  But NED hasn't provided
aid to foster progressive or leftist opposition in Mexico, El
Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, or Eastern Europe -- or, for that
matter, in the United States -- even though these groups are hard
pressed for funds and to make themselves heard.  Cuban dissident
groups and media are heavily supported however. 
     NED's reports carry on endlessly about "democracy", but at
best it's a modest measure of mechanical political democracy they have
in mind, not economic democracy; nothing that aims to threaten the
powers-that-be or the way-things-are, unless of course it's in a place
like Cuba.
     The Endowment played an important role in the Iran-Contra
affair of the 1980s, funding key components of Oliver North's
shadowy "Project Democracy" network, which privatized US foreign
policy, waged war, ran arms and drugs, and engaged in other
equally charming activities.  At one point in 1987, a White House
spokesman stated that those at NED "run Project Democracy".{10} This
was an exaggeration; it would have been more correct to say that NED
was the public arm of Project Democracy, while North ran the covert
end of things.  In any event, the statement caused much less of a stir
than if -- as in an earlier period -- it had been revealed that it was
the CIA which was behind such an unscrupulous operation. 
     NED also mounted a multi-level campaign to fight the leftist
insurgency in the Philippines in the mid-1980s, funding a host of
private organizations, including unions and the media.{11}  This was a
replica of a typical CIA operation of pre-NED days. 
     And between 1990 and 1992, the Endowment donated a
quarter-million dollars of taxpayers' money to the Cuban-American
National Fund, the ultra-fanatic anti-Castro Miami group.  The CANF,
in turn, financed Luis Posada Carriles, one of the most prolific and
pitiless terrorists of modern times, who was involved in the blowing
up of a Cuban airplane in 1976, which killed 73 people.  In 1997, he
was involved in a series of bomb explosions in Havana hotels.{12}
     The NED, like the CIA before it, calls what it does
supporting democracy.  The governments and movements whom the
NED targets call it destabilization.{13}

1. Washington Post, September 22, 1991

2. NED Annual Reports, 1994-96.

3. NED Annual Report, 1996, p.39

4. For further information on AIFLD, see: Tom Barry, et al., The
Other Side of Paradise: Foreign Control in the Caribbean (Grove
Press, NY, 1984), see AIFLD in index; Jan Knippers Black, United
States Penetration of Brazil (Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1977),
chapter 6; Fred Hirsch, An Analysis of Our AFL-CIO Role in Latin
America (monograph, San Jose, California, 1974) passim; The Sunday
Times (London), October 27, 1974, p.15-16

5. NED Annual Report, November 18, 1983 to September 30, 1984,

6. NED Annual Report, November 18, 1983 to September 30, 1984,

7. See NED annual reports of the 1990s.

8. Haiti: Haiti Progres (Port-au-Prince, Haiti), May 13-19, 1998

9. New York Times, March 31, 1997, p.11

10. Washington Post, February 16, 1987; also see New York Times,
February 15, 1987, p.1

11. San Francisco Examiner, July 21, 1985, p.1

12. New York Times, July 13, 1998

13. For a detailed discussion of NED, in addition to the sources
named above, see: William I. Robinson, A Faustian Bargain: U.S.
Intervention in the Nicaraguan Elections and American Foreign
Policy in the Post-Cold War Era (Westview Press, Colorado, 1992),

This is a chapter from Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only
Superpower, by William Blum

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