PROPOSAL FOR A DEGREE IN THE STUDIES OF PEACE by Janet Hudgins

BACKGROUND
For some time I have been working on establishing a Canadian University of
Peace. If the "science" of war can be taught and researched, it follows
that the same can be applied to peace. We have never discovered how to
share the planet, or to save it from ourselves. Education is the place to
begin.

PURPOSE
Many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada are offering
Peace and Conflict Studies (PACS). But there is no graduate-level peace
science degree program. There was such an institution in Costa Rica. It was
opened by the UN in 1982 and offered a master's degree in the studies of
peace or "Irenology," from the Greek goddess of peace. Now, suffering from
lack of funds, it is offering only two courses. (Maurice Strong, was
appointed president of the University for Peace on Costa Rica to
restructure, and they expect to fully operational soon).

So the Science of the Studies of Peace is not a bona fide vocation.
A masters degree would change that. And the urgent need for graduates now,
and long into the next millennium would ensure its future. Canada should
take the initiative. No other science could be so rewarding, no other step
could be so valuable to us or, our youth. The large majority of the world's
researchers are in the employ of the military, seventy-two percent in the
United States. A profession in Peace Studies would substantially balance
that influence.
During the course of research, I discovered that both students and
faculty from colleges in the United States would come here to complete
their truncated education, were we to establish a degree in peace. And it
is very important that we encourage other countries to be part of the
co-operative program so that we can exchange students, to establish a
relationship with as many institutions of learning in the world as possible
with a view to sending our students there and bringing their students here,
and perhaps to establish a future virtual university open to anyone
anywhere.

A NEW FIELD OF STUDY
One of the traditional fields open to students of International Relations
is the foreign or diplomatic service, but this is usually reactive to
conflict. A Peace graduate, trained in conflict resolution, international
relations, human rights, global economy and ecology, and international law,
would work pro-actively, often in the field..

SOURCES OF NEW STUDENTS
It would be proper and advantageous to approach high schools, colleges and
universities everywhere now teaching PACS, and even those offering a few
relevant courses such as The L.B. Pearson Institute, and the other eight
such institutions in the world, peace organizations and the UN are also
possibilities. As well, a web site would be very useful for recruitment
purposes.

COURSES
From Political Science:
*Human Rights and Civil Liberties
*International Trade
*International Finance
*Political Geography
*The Balance of Power in Europe
*U.S. Foreign Policy
*The Arab Middle East in the 20th Century
*Latin American International Relations
*Introduction to International Politics
*International Integration and Regional Association
*Relations between Developed & Developing Nations
*Global Political Economy
*Public International Law
*The Nation-State & the Multinational Corporation.
*International Organizations
*International Conflict Resolution 400 level
*Canadian International Security Relations
*Comparative Foreign Relations: Selected Political Systems
*Nuclear Strategy, Arms Control & International Security
*Politics and Foreign Policy in the European Economic Community
*American Foreign Policy
*International Relations in East Asia
*two other courses in Selected Topics in International Relations
and *Human Rights Theories
From Sociology and Anthropology:
Ethnic Conflicts
Social Control
Peasants, Proletarians and Global Economy
From Criminology:
Terrorism
From Geography:
Social and Human Geography
Other Possibilities:
From Costa Rica's University for Peace curriculum:
Peace Research
Analysis of Regional Conflicts
International Court of Justice
Global Economy
Global Ecology
Natural Resources and Sustainable Development
International Program for Indigenous Studies

MY JOB
It would be advantageous to talk to all potential students about a
profession in the Studies of Peace or the Science of Peace. Beginning with
high schools, then those relevant departments of all universities in the
world, to encourage them to come here, and to establish similar courses in
their own institutions so that our students can go to other universities as
exchange students. I see that as an exciting aspect of this new program
that I would enjoy being part of. As well, I would expect to be part of the
fund-raising team for the new program, and to liaise with the champion(s).

Janet Hudgins 22/7/00
2203-2085 Comox Street
Vancouver BC  V6G 1Sw
604-687-8733
jhudgina@sfu.ca

APPENDIX -
 
TEACHING PEACE by Janet Hudgins

The Charter of the United Nations declares that:
"We The Peoples of the United Nations Determined
to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war . . . to reaffirm
faith in fundamental human rights, in the diginity and worth of the human
person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations . . . to
establish conditions under which justice . . . can be maintained, to
promote social progress and better standard of life in larger freedom,
And for These Ends
to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good
neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain international peace and
security, and ensure . . . that armed force shall not be used . . . and to
employ international machinery for the promotion of economic and social
advancement of all peoples,
Have Resolved to Combine Our Efforts to Accomplish These Aims"

WHERE ARE WE NOW?
We have moved even farther away from the principles of the Charter
than we were when it was written fifty-three years ago. Today's warfare is
more hideous than ever before and civilization in many countries has become
very fragile. Defenseless civilians-women and children, even animals-are
now cannon fodder for the despots who manipulate and control their own
people, keep them ignorant of reality and lead them into subhuman
atrocities well beyond anything yet perpetrated by man. Vilifying
propaganda creates what it is designed to do: fear, hate and random chaos.
It deepens with each generation, and violence becomes the norm offering up
willing candidates to the guerilla, terrorist and mercenary elements.
"Power is the ultimate aphrodisiac," said Henry Kissinger during the Gulf
War.
Peace is certainly the absence of war, but it is also the absence
of ignorance. We have never discovered how to share the planet, or to save
it from ourselves. The incapacity to understand instills fear which leads
to violence. If the "science" of war can be taught and researched, it
follows that the same can be applied to peace. Education is the place to
begin, it is virtually the only source of a foundation for peace, from
which to build.

PEACE EDUCATION
The Science of the Studies of Peace is not now a bona fide
vocation. A masters degree would change that, and the urgent need for
graduates now and long into the millennium would ensure its future. And
Canada is the ideal candidate to establish a full Canadian University of
Peace offering degrees in the studies of peace.
Many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada are
offering Peace and Conflict Studies (PACS), but there is no graduate-level
peace science degree program. Courses include: Human Rights and Civil
Liberties, Roots of Conflict and Violence, Human Rights, The World's Supply
of Food, Genocide and Ethnocide, International Law, Peace Research,
International Court of Justice, Global Ecology and Economy, Analysis of
Regional Conflicts. They offer interdisciplinary research and conferences,
research in peace and conflict, links between resource scarcities and
violence, sources and nature of ethno-nationalist conflict, social adaption
to complex stresses, disposal of weapons-grade nuclear materials, worldwide
partnerships, policy recommendations to governmental and non-governmental
groups, community understanding, resource centres, community initiatives
and practical involvement in peace-making.
A Canadian University of Peace would encourage other countries to
be part of a co-operative Virtual-U, to establish a relationship with as
many institutions of learning as possible to exchange students which would
make peace studies available to everyone everywhere. Historically, it has
been students, often risking their lives as they did in Indonesia, who have
successfully deposed despots peacefully, and affected dramatic long-term
change in establishing equitable and fair governance. China claims it will
make the internet available to all its citizens, Buenos Aires says it has
already done so, and Al Gore is promising it to Americans if he is elected
president.

WE MUST CHANGE OUR TRADITION
Albert Einstein said, "Insanity is when we keep doing the same thing,
expecting different results." In the twentieth century we have seen
destruction on a level unprecedented in our history. In the period since
the second war, smaller wars have killed hundreds of thousand of civilians,
imposed homelessness, disability, despair, destruction of the environment
and the means of sustaining life for many species. Yet, war is only the
most exposed form of violence. An estimated one million women have been
raped in the name of war, many were killed, or more likely butchered, and
many more would prefer to be dead; and children- three hundred thousand are
now cannon fodder for the pathethic abject insanity of war. We must build a
tradition of peace and nonviolence and change the anachronisitic mentality
of war: that it is "good for the economy," "provides employment," "disposes
of the unsavory elements in society;" and the euphemisms that glorify war:
"fought brilliantly," "in operations," "theatres," "campaigns,"
"casualties," "collateral damage."
The peace tradition has been undergoing change, adaptation and
refinement forever. It has been kept alive, essentially by women, even in
the most brutal environments and in the most violent times. It is a
tradition that rejects silence and passivity in the face of injustice, and
attempts to be critical of methods of waging conflict used by oppressors
and tyrants. In seeking to work out a path that honours both justice and
peace, this is a vital tradition for humanity. It demands the best that we
have to offer in our scholarship, our creativity and our conduct.
Canada has a very important role to play in bringing peace to the
world, but we must not speak out of both sides of our mouth, we must decide
to be peace builders and developers, and never be diverted or allow
politicians to do that in our name. We are our own history, and regretfully
in some cases, our own destiny: Canada agreed with Britain and United
States to share resources in building the first nuclear bomb (and never to
use it against each other); the first US atomic bombs were made from raw
material, uranium from a mine in Great Bear Lake, Ontario; today we permit
the deployment of nuclear bombers from Canadian airfields during a crisis
and we provide airspace for nuclear bomber testing. (The federal government
signed a ten-year agreement with its NATO allies, Germany, England, and The
Netherlands, to double the number of low-level military training flights to
15,000 flights a year, over Labrador and eastern Quebec; some of these jets
roar over at 30 meters above the ground). We support disarmament treaties
and international law while also supporting NATO's policy of using nuclear
bombs as defensive weapons; and we sell uranium and plutonium on the world
market for other countries to develop nuclear weapons.

IS VIOLENCE A HUMAN CONDITION?
According to a panel of retired and external military experts on a United
States/Canadian television panel program, The Editors, (5 Sept 99),
"violence in men is a human condition." They said the elite and desirable
force which we need to attract recruits is the killing force, not the snow
shovellers in Toronto, or the peacekeepers in Crete; young men are
disciplined by the military to be half civlized and half killer; that there
will always be young men who want to break things and kill, if possible. To
attract them, the recruiters and leaders have to be able to offer them the
"adventure" of war and the prospect of killing, for it is this mentality in
certain young men that sustains the military, especially the artilliary. In
reality, recruits everywhere are traditionally largely misfits, unemployed
and unemployable, often in trouble with the law.
Women in the military, also particularly in the artilliary, are
filling quotas for politicians, a gender laboratory waiting for the numbers
of women in body bags to determine whether they are successful and if the
public will accept it or not.

Yet military experts argue it is not innate for men to solve differences
with war. Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, an American paratrooper turned
psychologist and researcher found what all military leaders and few
civilians know: that you can train and arm a man, put him in a uniform on a
battlefield in imminent danger, and he still won't kill. In the final years
of the World War II, US army historians discovered that only 15-20 per cent
of soldiers ever fired their weapons in battle. Even those who did fire
their weapons, aimed high. Brig Gen. S.L.A. Marshall, in charge of the
survey, said that "At this vital point, he becomes a conscientious
objector."
In response to this phenomenon, the military turned its immediate
attention to solving this problem with a combination of desensitization and
conditioning techniques: soldiers no longer shoot at bulls-eyes, they train
against pop-up targets resembling human beings, something called "operant
conditioning," designed to make shooting so reflexive that they don't have
time to think about it until afterwards. It worked. By the time of the
Vietnam War, up to 95 per cent of American soldiers were firing their
weapons at the enemy - which is why they suffer such a high level of
post-traumatic stress disease.
Grossman's point is that since then, in the past 30 years, we have
used almost indentical techniques of desensitization and operant
conditioning against our own children in the name of entertainment. He
says, "The same tools that more than quadrupled the firing rate in Vietnam
are now in widespread use among our civilian population."
We are so inured, hardened against the horrors of war, thanks to
television and technology, we neither notice nor feel. We have unleashed
almost identical techniques of desensitization and operant conditioning
against our own children in the name of entertainment. It is so unfortunate
that technology has loomed so large before we have had time to mature to
it. Films and video arcades are now the equivilant of the military's
operant conditioning. Grossman writes, "The same tools that more than
quadrupled the firing rate in Vietnam are now in widespread use among our
civilian population."
Science and war have become very close since the last war. Neither
can now exist without the other and neither can see where the other is
leading it. Eighty per cent of the world's scientists are working for the
military. The majority of research, even so-called pure research is
underwrittten by the military. It has now reached the point where it is
science and industry that initiate weapons systems. As these various
systems proliferate, are tested and put into practice, the probablity of
environmental catastrophe increases.
If eighty per cent of the world's scientists are working for the
military, the missing peace research is here, and cancer, AIDS,
environmental research and their respective resources can be found, and in
this country alone, the food and education and welfare for our own
one-and-a-half million children of the underclass.
The nuclear threat is on the rise again since China and Pakistan
have become nuclear weapons-capable states. The US Senate passed a bill on
October 13th, 1999, to reinstate nuclear proliferation. As well, the US is
planning to develop the National Missile Defence System, the "Son of Star
Wars," in violation of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. We are all
subject to risk of thermal nuclear plant "accidents," and we are all at
huge risk to a handful of people who can blow the planet out of the cosmos.
Japan, the first recipient of the first Atom Bomb, which suffered the most
devastation yet perpetrated up to that time, went out and got a nuclear
bomb of its very own, and has now had a nuclear accident.

Abba Eban, the Israeli representative to the United Nations for many years
said, "History teaches us that men and nations behave wisely-once they have
exhausted all the other alternatives." Presently there are about
fifty-three wars going on in the world. Stemming mainly from intolerance,
they are the most horrifying wars ever recorded: those born to the decreed
enemy, the poor, those whose appearance or customs set them up as the
targets of intolerance and abuse and this is our most pressing human
obstacle to peace. How do we begin addressing such an overwhelming problem?
Education! Educators are still the guardians of civilization.
Canada must take the initiative during this hiatus. Peace is what
we do and what we do best. We can well afford to establish a Canadian
University of Peace, and we have a responsibility to our youth to do so, so
that they can stand on our shoulders now and in generations to come.


Janet Hudgins
Rev. 22/7/00
2203-2075 Comox Street
Vancouver BC  V6G 1S2
604-687-8733
jhudgina@sfu.ca