Leader Within : Learning Enough About Yourself to Lead Others,
by Drea Zigarmi, Ken Blanchard, Michael O'Connor, Carl Edeburn.
Hardcover: 288 pages.
Publisher: Financial Times Prentice Hall (August 26, 2004). ISBN:
0131470256. The first step toward becoming an extraordinary leader: Know
Yourself. The Leader Within will
help you understand yourself better … so you can change, grow, and become
powerfully more effective. If you
lead... if you intend to lead... if you work with leaders... you need this book.
You need it to discover why self-change is your most urgent leadership
challenge; your values, beliefs, and personality are driving your success -- or
your failure -- even when you don't realize it.
You need it to discover how to lead brilliantly, in ways that reflect
your own values and personality; connect in both group settings and one-to-one
contexts; liberate personal traits and energies you never knew you had; rekindle
your team's spirit -- and build stronger, more effective, more joyful
organizations. Liberate the
outstanding leader inside you -- with The Leader Within.
is what I highlighted during my read of this excellent book -- I recommend it on
my Top-ten List of Peace resources. My purpose in providing them is to
interest you, the reader, and hope that you will obtain and read the complete
work. To properly understand the highlights, you need to read the book to
put them in the proper context.]
… vision must be growthful
… societal … contribute to well-being … eventual independence …
The term ‘servant
leader’ might come to mind.
Such a leader ensures that
other people’s high-priority needs are being served.
1. Leaders and Change
“A person who doesn’t
know himself can do nothing for others.” Eiji
The Importance of Leadership
The Conundrum: If it is so
important, why don’t more people lead others more effectively? … Lack of
know-how and lack of commitment …
Two Examples … visionless,
myopic, self-oriented …
Questions to Ponder … you
must commit yourself to change and growth.
… task focused … people
… not aware of the effect
he is happening …
… lacks the will to change
… create anger, fear,
resentment, frustration, and flight … the loss …
The Abetting System
… poor leadership begets
more poor leadership … human issues are not valued … take longer to
… more competition than
collaboration … short-term issues displace long-term future considerations.
Kissing Off The Organization
… people in organizations
feel sad and dissociated from their organizations … don’t nurture their
many employees seem to lead stressful organizational lives because they choose
or are forced to abandon their personal beliefs, values and hopes “at the
The Leadership Vacuum
… the biggest competitive
edge they have lies more in the people they lead and less in technology,
capitalization, or market share.
… have a strong desire for
power or wealth are in charge.
The process of natural
selection reinforces a culture of “self”-oriented individuals.
… neither the sense nor
desire ... that includes both a social vision and values for others …
There seems to be a profound
lack of purposefulness, except to make it to the top.
… shaped by corporate
culture, rather than shaping or changing the culture to emotionally ignite the
minds and hearts of those who carry out the organization’s purpose.
They are followers who are
promoted to leadership positions with no precedents for what leadership could
… interconnectedness and
commonality of people.
… addicts … imbalanced
system … dysfunctional …
They must … see their
office as a social responsibility, a trust, a duty, and not as a symbol of their
personal identity, prestige and lofty status.
Good leadership is about
your outlook, your orientation, your character, and your inner thoughts and
Onions: The Layered Self –
The Leadership Onion:
core unconscious self
leadership skin or behavior
The values layer is your
unique essence …
… constantly grow through
introspection and reflection … loving tolerance … humble acceptance …
patient acknowledgement … self-change.
The Challenge of Discomfort
Change … inherent in the
process of leadership is the requirement that other people change and grow.
people create their own reality
people seem to cling to their
realities because of fear of losing what they have, and
people confine themselves to
their present realities because they do not usually envision other alluring and
Beliefs as the Basis of
Language and Reality
Clinging to Accepted
Realities … Reality is just something on which there is consensus …
Confining Yourself …
conforming to accepted realities can be confining.
Fear and The Shadow Self …
Often, what can and does happen, through a trained incapacity, is that you
develop a less flexible self, a less understood self, and a less self-accepted
person … it’s the failure to explore the fears that limit.
Me and My Shadow
Societies throughout history
denied and controlled the shadow side by “projecting” or assigning that
which is not socially or culturally acceptable to other groups or races.
… the socialization
process serves a purpose. Socialization
prevents anarchy or self-oriented, indiscriminate, socially harmful behaviors
that pander to the possible destructive side of every person.
… certain antisocial
behaviors, such as murder, rape, theft, lying, and so on, should be labeled as
undesirable, unacceptable, or unhealthy, and therefore should be prevented.
… each individual, regardless of gender, possesses the capacity to learn these
two sets of behaviors …
Fear – Your Emotional
It’s All Part of the Game
… to grow means that you must believe people can and do change…
book is based on our findings that most people can change.
People can and do change major patterns of behavior – with effort and
Alternative Realities and
It is said that true
insanity is repeating the same ineffective behaviors over and over yet expecting
different results. The fear factor
is one reason people do not change behavior, however a second and more
debilitating reason is the lack of alternatives.
Some people possess almost no sense of different alternatives.
To grow requires that you
become more versatile.
Working on the “Self”
Personal “Why” of
Leadership … Profits are necessary and desirable, but remember that profit is
a by-product of a greater, broad-ranging vision.
Change and Failure … Your
challenge is to know yourself well enough to change yourself.
Summary … change is
possible, with self-understanding and growth. … being an effective leader is,
more than anything else, a learned set of behaviors.
For the benefit of present and future generations …
2. Personality and
“Watch your thoughts; they
become your words. Watch your words;
they become your actions. Watch your
actions; they become your habits. Watch
your habits; they become your character. Watch
your character; it becomes your destiny.”
Personality … In a
Who you are (inside)
governs, to a large extent, how you act and react (outside).
A Model For Experience …
people know you through what you say and do – your behaviors.
Positive and Negative
Response Models … An end response is values-based, premeditative, rational,
belief-oriented, and desired state of existence; for example, the desire for
world peace epitomizes an end response.
Is The Medium … the essence of any leadership attempt lies in others’
reaction to your behaviors … be the message …
[ed. This is why “Peace starts with me!”]
Definition of Personality
Personality is Dynamic
Personality is Influenced by
Diversity Within Pattern
Subdivision of Personality:
Disposition, Values, and Persona … managers use both their sense of right or
wrong, and their understanding of personal goals and fears when they are
influencing others. Interestingly
enough, some managers are more “values driven”, and others are more “needs
Definition of Disposition
The Importance of Energy …
Disposition, when naturally acted upon, energizes you.
Being aware of your energy
requirements means understanding and coping with the compatibility or
incompatibility between the functional requirements of a situation and your
natural disposition to meet those requirements.
There are adverse consequences to the expenditure of life energy when not
replenished. There should be at least a moderate fit between role and
disposition if stress and tension are to be handled effectively.
Definition of Values
Criteria for a Value …
Thoughts and ideas not acted on over time should not be considered values …
Only beliefs that are genuinely self-owned, “cherished”, and consistently
acted on can be considered values.
The Leadership Onion and
Definition of Role Behavior
and Values Are a Basis For Role … lack of role clarity can stem from
ambiguous, ill-conceived vision and/or values, as well as confusing job
descriptions and action plans.
Role Behavior as the Basis
For Leadership … the leadership role blends and integrates these different
viewpoints toward a shared vision or end state … Leadership,
in its best form, is granted by those being led.
Importance of the Role
Concept … you must learn to read the “social architecture”
Effective leadership results
from an inner state of readiness (or nonreadiness) in light of external role
Leaders are born and made.
Your inner work is as
important as your understanding of the role.
The Leader Behavior Subset
… direct leader behaviors
Effective leadership is the
act(s) of arousing, engaging, and satisfying followers’ motives – within an
environment of conflict, competition, or change – that results in followers
taking action toward a mutually shared vision.
Context Versus Situation
Organizational Context …
four key factors that dynamically interact to shape the performance of the
the organization’s culture
(formal and informal)
strategic directions and
processes and systems
(including its managerial, operational, financial, and human resource
Need To Know Yourself … to
meet the situation well, you must come to know yourself.
If you don’t know yourself, you are not likely to be as effective as
those who do.
Knowing yourself requires
both action and reflection. Action
without reflection can result in uninformed future action.
Reflection without action can result in sterile, ungrounded thinking. …
You must practice learning about yourself.
… if, through reflection
and action, you can let go of your ego, habits of preference, or personal needs,
then you can become more adaptive, more tolerant.
You are able to access your other inner aspects, which can help you
become a more versatile, effective, and human leader.
The beauty of
self-understanding is that it can help you recognize the expectations inherent
in the context in which you lead. It
can help you understand that they self is a microcosm of others and a mechanism
for seeing similar and dissimilar patterns within others.
3. Preference and
Preference … Unconscious
Roots of the Idea
Definition of Preference
Definition of Disposition
Neither Good Nor Bad
Familiar Ways of Responding
Modes of Responding
Flight Versus Fight
Accept Versus Control
Direct Versus Indirect
Perceive Versus Judge
Pessimistic … A pessimist is an individual who tends to react as if the world
is an unfriendly, hostile place, despite information or experiences to the
Summary of Basic Response
The “D” Direct
Controller … Control, Extroversion, Fight, Directness, and Judging …
Directive or Dominant … pay a high price for success in their personal and
social lives, because they choose getting results over developing relationships.
… big picture … “lead, follow, or get out of the way” …
The “I” Direct Accepter
… Interactive or Social … they put relationships before tasks …
The “S” Indirect
Accepter … Stable or Steady preference … work hard at making relationships
work … “Everything in Moderation” … “Actions speak louder than
The “C” Indirect
Controller … Cautious or Conscientious preference … accountants … heavy
requirement on being right … overly critical of, and lack compassion for,
themselves and others … aloof … takes the greatest amount of time … fear
personal criticism of their work efforts and invasion of their privacy … see
the complexity in life … “In God we trust; everyone else bring data!” …
power comes from the acquisition of systematically proven knowledge …
DISC Principle #1 – There
is no best preference or DISC position. … It is the preference in light of
role requirements that makes a preference better or worse.
DISC Principle #2 – All
people are motivated by their needs (goals and fears).
What is observed more often than not is that leaders try to meet their
own needs through the job or role they play in the organization, rather than
meet the requirements of the role. The
organizational role becomes a vehicle for ego stimulation and enhancement.
The fear-based behavior of
… “D” as demanding and defiant, … “I” as impulsive and
indiscriminate … “S” as sedentary and stern, … “C” as callous and
complaining … Operating from your fear base makes it difficult to lead others,
and therefore, you lose credibility in the eyes of your employees.
Knowing when you are
fear-driven can help you modify your behaviors before “you burn your
The leader must also
understand the underlying disposition of those they seek to influence well
enough to speak to their needs. … In other words, the understanding of self
and others is a prerequisite (though not a guarantee) to long-term leadership
DISC Principle #3 –
Eighty-five percent of the population demonstrates more than one DISC preference
or DISC position.
DISC Principle #4 – Two
preferences cannot, at any one time, be equally strong under pressure. … the
“D” preference … may be less effective in situations where they cannot
control outcomes, take on challenges, take charge, or create change.
DISC Principle #5 – Each
personal preference has its own inherent strengths or limitations and,
therefore, still undeveloped potentials
… you are limited only
when you are not aware of your alternatives.
Behavioral adaptability is
defined as the willingness and ability to use a range of behaviors, not
necessarily characteristic of your style, to deal effectively with the
requirements of the situation or relationship.
Your strength lies in your
natural self’s energy to act in certain ways.
DISC Principle #6 – People
can become more versatile; other preferences can be developed. … speak the
language they prefer.
Adaptability results, first,
from making a commitment to change, and then learning and using more effective
behavior when the opportunity occurs. … Adaptability results from keeping your
goals in mind and on paper, then revisiting those goals frequently.
Sensing ineffectiveness, for
most normal people, triggers a need for change.
The Platinum Rule
Reciprocity is a basic stage
in moral development.
… you make a critical
mistake by assuming that how you would like to be treated is how others would
like to be treated.
Platinum Rule says, “Do unto others as they want to be done unto.”
Leaders must act on the
premise that others are motivated and shaped by their own needs.
Summary … DISC Summary
4. Beliefs and Points of
society driven by responsibilities is oriented toward service, acknowledging
other points of view, compromise and progress – whereas a society driven by
rights is oriented toward acquisitions, confrontation and advocacy … at the
most fundamental level, all conduct is individual so when you bring the moral
dimension to individual actions, you bring integrity to the entire work
Beliefs … Beliefs as
Importance of Beliefs
There are two reasons why
you should examine and understand your beliefs:
to better know yourself, and
to provide a mechanism for
Beliefs and values are a
cognitive structure, “mental filters” by which you experience objects,
people, and events. These filters
influence your attitudes and intentions, and impact the way you interact with
The Power of Beliefs
A perceived similarity or
dissimilarity between people’s belief systems is the basis for rejection or
acceptance of others.
Leadership problems in
organizations are not simply “miscommunication” problems, but clearly
communicated differences in beliefs and values.
Mechanism of Self-Change
You must begin to know and
examine the beliefs that underlie your approach to yourself and the world.
It is not events that control your life, but your beliefs about what
these events mean.
The Concept of Belief … A
belief is the mental acceptance that some idea or perception is true.
Beliefs and Values …
Beliefs are the basis of values and value systems.
However, a point that needs repeating is that all values are beliefs, but
not all beliefs are values…
What is a Value? … A value
is an enduring belief that a particular mean or end is more socially or
individually preferable than another end or mean.
Examples of end values …
wanting a world at peace. Examples
of means values include wanting to be honest, or doing unto others as you would
want done unto you.
a value is chosen … Coerced
or forced behaviors are not considered values based.
it is chosen from alternatives
… To act on your values initially requires thoughtful reflection.
It involves weighing what is better, what is right (or more right)
against what may be worse or wrong. … unexamined values are called programmed
it is chosen with an
understanding of the consequences … developed values.
it is acted on over time … it
is a major contradiction to say you value something, yet not act on that value
it is prized or “publicly
Types of Values … there
are two types of values: means and ends. … end values are either social or
personal in focus.
Value Systems … developed
with time and experience. … A well-integrated value system would include
interrelated ideas and values that connect economics to power or to morality,
and so on.
The Value of Values …
People use values for
presentation of self in a
self-conflict resolution and
decision making … Value differences stand at the base of conflict or strife
throughout the history of human beings. … A
value system is a learned set of beliefs or values that help one to choose
between alternatives and conflicts and decide on a course of action.
motivation … Values also
serve as means for self-motivation. End
values are most often future oriented and serve as a long-range expression of
your desires. The ends and means of
attainment represent your reasons for living … a sense of self-esteem along
your life evolution toward personal fulfillment.
End values become a purpose – a focus for future action.
They tell you what “business” you are in as a human being.
Adherence to end values liberates energy.
Motivation is the expression of the interest, excitement, or enthusiasm
to produce some end. … Motivation is manifested in consistent, focused
behavior toward a desired end; it is a purposeful action.
Without end values, purposeful action is limited to transitory adaptation
to the environment. You must own a
sense of purpose that exceeds the sense of task. … A major emphasis of your
leadership behaviors lies in making “the game” clear for those you wish to
influence so they can motivate themselves.
Points of View … Research
shows that there are four general points of view … (“T.I.C.S.”)
Self/Other Focus … When
acting on a social end, you are acting on behalf of others.
To truly understand these
points of view, suspend your judgment about good or bad and right or wrong as
you initially begin to analyze these concepts.
Otherwise, you may reject before truly understanding.
… the locus of control. For the
rights-oriented individual, control of the ends and means lies with the person.
In contrast, a responsibility orientation places the definition of
goodness n the hands of the group. A
responsibility orientation is concerned with what the group requires from the
individual, and what is “better” for the group rather than for a given
individual. A responsibility
orientation fosters the orientation of service, acknowledgment of other points
of view, and compromise for the welfare of the group.
Priority is given to the group’s well-being, and then the
individual’s responsibility and role in support of the group’s collective
thinking. … Ends such as a world at peace or equality are examples.
“T” – traditionalist
… oriented toward social ends and social means … the key end value is
responsible living … they are motivated to contribute to others and their
society. They want to be of service
– to make their world a better place. … once the appropriate authority or
process determines the group’s goals and courses of action.
… The key means values are devotion, loyalty, and dependability. …
Their motto is “no pain, no gain”. … New technologies and military weapons
necessitate that the traditionalist develops a greater capability to collaborate
in a global context. [ed. But these
people could be totally misguided; eg. fundamentalists that believe the status
quo is perfect for all]
“I” – inbetweener …
can sense the strengths of both traditionalist and challenger beliefs and find a
position somewhere in the middle. They
are in a double bind of believing in some of the tenants of social order and
tradition while focusing first on their own self well-being. … they take a
“rights” approach rather than a responsibility orientation.
They focus on their rights, and then others’ rights.
Unlike the challenger, the inbetweener is optimistic about life and its
multiple choices. … End values such as true friendship, a comfortable life,
and happiness are self or person focused. … achieved by the social recognition
of hard work. … means values are growth, equality, and helpfulness. …
“climb the highest mountain” … “attitude determines altitude” …
“the sky is the limit” … found reading self-help books … concern for
others … they look for ways to satisfy the “wants” of others without
sacrificing their own happiness … produces conflict minimizers, peacemakers,
and friendly relationship makers … sometimes incapable of making the
provocative decisions needed to be visionaries.
“C” – challenger …
focused on their individual rights … the key end value is
self-preservation/satisfaction. … achieve power and status … They are
willing to do whatever it takes because “all’s fair in love and war” and
“the end justifies the means”. … pessimistic about life and societies and
do not want to be constrained by needless rules or customs of the masses. …
see the need for change as part of life … push an issue into a win-lose
confrontation … “Might keeps you free.” …”my way or the highway”
“S” – synthesizer …
oriented toward social ends and personal means … is actually a by-product of
all the other points of view. … shares the same concern for well-being as the
traditionalist, the same optimistic sense of unlimited potential as the
inbetweener, and the same belief in self-competency as the challenger. … The
key belief that motivates the synthesizer is inner satisfaction, which derives
from knowing they did the best that can be expected under the conditions that
prevailed at that time. A key value is integration of self with others.
Because they hold largely responsibility-oriented ends … their priority
is human rights in the context of “human dignity” for themselves and others.
… mutual respect … “inner peace” … resolution … they want all-win
solutions … deep belief in themselves and their purpose in life. … key means
values are logic, justice, and inner congruence. … The synthesizer’s belief
in justice is demonstrated through their ability to see merit in all values
perspectives and to recognize the limits of any one position as the right way,
including their own. … simple
solutions that represent one point of view are likely to produce conflict. …
Belief in inner congruence is demonstrated through the constant examination of
“self” behavior in light of service or commitment to beliefs.
They believe, above all else, that each individual must be true to his or
her espoused values. A better world is achieved through each person’s individual actions.
… Synthesizers pay particular attention to the betterment of future
generations. … Integrity is achieved by meaning what you say. … To
espouse something, yet not act in accord with what is espoused, is to not be
personally congruent. The lack of
inner harmony or congruence can be stressful on synthesizers – stressful to
the point where they may become ill if they fail to act in alignment with their
values. … “Let your conscience be your guide” … “Winning isn’t
everything” … “The most important thing in life is to decide what’s most
important and then act consistently with what is most important.” … “You
make your own luck” … They will be personally active for the causes they
believe in. … make long-range choices so as not to be controlled by external
forces in a situation. They view
ambiguity as part of contemporary life … flexible and accountable … A set of
shared “rules” is a “must” for the future, if conditions are to
stabilize and improve. …
Specific Life Issues for the
Political – “Politics is
the art of the possible, the attainable, the art of the next best.
Do not confuse power with greatness.”
Legal – “The law must be
stable, but it must not stand still. The
law does not generate justice. The
law is nothing but a declaration and application of what is just.”
Aesthetic – “A good life is
doing the best for all concerned with the knowledge and abilities you have
available at that time. Give me
beauty in the inward soul: may the outward and inward man be as one.”
Social – “No man is an
island, entire of itself; every man is part of the continent, a part of the
main. Any man’s death diminishes
me, because I am involved in mankind.”
Moral – “No one can be
perfectly free ‘til all are free; no one perfectly moral ‘til all are moral;
no one perfectly happy ‘til all are happy.”
Economic – “That man is the
richest whose pleasures are the cheapest.”
Summary of the Synthesizer
… Synthesizers derive meaning in the work setting by being active in issues
that matter to them. They tend to
follow a life of outer simplicity and inner richness in a quiet and highly
personalized manner. They also tend
to treat relationships as “social contracts” that represent rights and
responsibilities, which are defined, agreed on, and regularly acted on.
In the social contract, they believe it is important to give more than
they get in the bargain. … Synthesizers, because they are activists, tend to
be in demand and are often called on to help others … overcommitted … may
not maintain their sense of inner harmony … controlling their commitments …
increase their self-tolerance … pace themselves … point of view in which
self-conguence is paramount. End
values such as integration of self, self-respect, and wisdom are core in the
synthesizer’s life. Means values
such as logic, justice, inner congruence, forgiveness, broad-mindedness, and
self-control are also of central importance to the synthesizer. … produces
individuals who are involved in causes … desire to make the world a better
place … involved in social issues. Examples:
Mahatma Gandhi, Albert Schweitzer, Albert Einstein, W.E.B. Du Bois, Abraham
Lincoln, Henry David Thoreau, Susan B. Anthony …
socialization, and significant life events may result in a shift of point of
Caveats to Points of View
… keep the following points in mind:
you may be a combination o f
tow or more of these value outlooks
you may change your position on
various issues and, therefore, ultimately change your overall point of view
you belong to a generation of
significant others who may reflect the same point of view as you, which will
“legitimize” your value base
each point of view includes
inherent stress points for use in everyday existence
The negative mode is
exemplified by a self-esteem conflict and a positive mode by ends-driven
Figure 4.7 Summary of Value
Points of View
5. Perceptions and
Psychological Bifocals … “would” and “should” questions can lead you
to understand whether you are values or needs driven, at that specific moment or
in that particular situation.
Connections to Self …
making connections between your dispositional self and your valuing point of
view requires that you continually look at your experiences through the
psychological bifocals of “would-do” and “should-do” behavior.
General Research Findings
… Although you are the best judge as to which drive – disposition or values
– is dominant at a particular moment … there seems to be little correlation
between self-perceptions of values and dispositional base. … The likelihood
for effective, meaningful interaction is further diluted by the other
individual’s possible lack of self-understanding.
Iceburgs … others’
perceptions of your behavior are the important 50 percent of the leadership
equation that you must consider if you want to influence others more
Self Versus Others’
Self-Perception … The
accuracy of your self-perceptions is dependent on intelligence, self-esteem,
ability to self-observe, and capacity to seek and retain personally relevant
Others’ Perception of the
Disposition-Values Connection … Others’ perceptions are usually more
reliable than your own. To be a
better leader, you must seek and accept feedback from others.
The So Whats
The Merger … the
possibility of being misinterpreted, misunderstood, or thwarted around issues
that are important to you. If you
are not seen for what you value, it could be because you do not act on your
values … the burden is on you to dispel the possible confusion, and clearly
communicate the uniqueness that you alone can bring to the individuals you
intend to influence.
people are “thwarted” because they do not act on their values.
(eg. Modeling violent action; poor relationship building; closed
mindedness, etc.) The burden is on
Peace people to dispel confusion, clearly communicate and model peaceful
behavior = Be Peace = Peace starts with me.]
The Misunderstood Challenger
… generational points of view cyclically reveal themselves in a specific order
and reoccur approximately every 80 years … The generations are titled
“civic” (traditionalist), “adapter” (inbetweener), “idealist”
(synthesizer), and “reactor” (challenger).
Relaters as Inbetweeners
Controllers as Synthesizers
… seek to control people and things to meet these needs … If your
synthesizer ends values are all-win and harmony for self and others, then you
must, at times, put people ahead of task control.
That can be a difficult choice for you, as a “D” or “C”
“What is happening below
the surface of what people see?”
Persona … there are at
least two internal selves. The self
you know you are and the self you want to present to others.
The self you think you are and your evaluation of that self is the basis
for self-esteem. The self you want
to present to others is your persona.
Self-Esteem … Noting how
you function in your experiences gives you a sense of competence.
If a history of failures is what is “noted”, then the self considers
itself as not functioning well. Self-esteem
is your judgment of your ability to function in the world. … self-confidence
boils down to belief. Self-esteem is
based on your negative or positive beliefs about self. … Self-esteem is also
self-respect. In other works, you
value your successes.
Negative and Positive Modes
Revisited … Negative modes are fear based, while positive modes are ends or
goals oriented. … The persistent search and fight for basic living
requirements can put an individual in a constant fear mode.
Couple the fear mode with failure to obtain the basic living requirements
and the result can be lower self-esteem. … Maslow
argues that most cruelty, malice, and destructiveness are not innate, but a
violent reaction against the frustrations of unmet intrinsic needs, emotions and
The Esteem, Disposition, and
The Definition of Persona
… The person you represent to the world, over time, constantly forms and grows
through social, intellectual, and physical encounters with the world around you.
… Hence, the persona (the person seen to the outside world), is a façade, a
compromise stemming from three factors:
the self you want to be …
the self you think others
expect you to be …
self-realities (disposition and values) that limit achievement of that ideal
Persona is important to
consider because the leader’s persona can be either a source of great delusion
or the basis for true change and/or influence.
The persona is like a “cloak” or “mask” …
Implications of Persona
The “So What” of Persona
In general, the
traditionalist shows little individual impact on employees, independent of the
organizational culture in which they lead. The
challenger and inbetweener points of view tend to overestimate the presence of
their influence. They also
overestimate the positive impact of their behaviors on group motivation and
morale. The synthesizer point of
view tends to underestimate the presence of their influence behavior, but has a
realistic view of their impact on group motivation and morale.
More important, a leader’s
point of view has a greater impact on follower perceptions of workplace
satisfaction than does disposition.
To vary the persona, one
must be conscious of it. To be
conscious of your persona, you must clearly understand how others perceive you,
and then own that as a relevant, truthful part of you.
You must constantly seek feedback from others and weigh that feedback in
light of the intended outcomes of your leadership attempts.
6. Behaviors and
“A new moral principle is
emerging which holds that the only authority deserving of one’s allegiance is
that which is freely and knowingly granted by the led to the leader in response
to, and in proportion to, the clearly evident servant stature of the leader.”
Managers Versus Leaders …
You may think of the words “manager” and “leader” as two concepts
representing opposite ends of a continuum.
Chart 6.1 Managers and
Viva La Difference … The
difference between leaders and followers is both psychic and behavioral.
This difference does not imply that one is better than the other.
The “goodness” depends on the organization, its social and business
environment, and its internal psychological, economic, and technical capacities.
The type of influencer, leader, or manager needed depends on the
circumstances. Thus, the complexity
Leadership Defined … Any
time you try to influence the behavior of someone else …
…leadership is defined as the act of arousing,
engaging, and satisfying the motives of followers – in an environment of
conflict, competition, or change – that results in the followers taking a
course of action toward a mutually shared vision.
Leaders must know their
followers well enough to coalesce the followers’ motives toward a common
… must ultimately connect
with those being led.
Values-based activity is the
basis for commitment – yours and others’.
Leadership Style Defined …
others’ perceptions of your influence behavior.
… Obviously, they will act on their own perceptions.
Two Basic Elements of
Some leaders try to
influence others by directing or shaping followers’ activities in terms of a
task, goal, or overall vision. These
are called directing, structuring, or focusing behaviors.
Other leaders concentrate on providing socioemotional support and on
building emotional relationships between themselves and their followers.
These influence behaviors are called supporting, collaborating, or
inspiring behaviors. These
fundamental elements of directing and supporting can be used in tandem or
Focusing Behavior … The decision-making prerogative is ultimately in the hands
of the leader, and is based on expertise or legitimate position power.
Inspiring Behavior … mutual trust and respect … manifested through
listening, praising, and facilitating the problem solving of others.
Decision-making responsibility is ultimately in the hands of the follower
An Example Across Context
Seven Is Not Magic … more
than 300 leadership behaviors
Chart 6.2 Directive and
Supportive Behaviors Across Contexts
Situational Leadership II
No “Single Best”
The One-to-One Context
Situational Leadership in a
Development Level …
development level is defined as the competence and commitment of the follower to
perform a particular task or achieve a particular goal.
Competence is a function of
knowledge or skills that can be gained from education, training, and/or
Commitment is attitudinal.
It is a psychological willingness to do what needs to be accomplished.
… “want-to-do” …
Subdivisions of Competence
… The idea of competence is subdivided into task knowledge and transferable
Subdivisions of Commitment
… Commitment is a combination of confidence and motivation. … Motivation is
defined as the desire, excitement, or enthusiasm to be the “best” or to get
ahead. It is the achievement ethic.
Development Levels Are
Regressive Cycle …
organization’s practices, your leadership style, or other job-related factors
… family illness, divorce, birth of a child, and other personal factors …
Development Level is Task or
A General Concept of Style 1
– Directing … military … short-term oriented … tactics, not strategies
Style Is In The Delivery …
A General Concept of Style 3
– Supporting … Servant as Leader … used inappropriately, it tends to put
employee needs above the needs of the organization.
… for mutual trust and
respect to develop between you and the employees being influenced, you must
actively listen to them about work-related issues and seek to help them reach
their answers to work-related issues. Facilitating
work-related problems means asking the critical, open-ended questions that
assist employees in finding their own solutions, not promoting your solutions.
In assisting employees with their own work solutions, you also give them
the prerogative to decide for themselves how something is to be accomplished.
… key leader behaviors …
mutual problem solving and listening … “ownership” of outcomes and
personal motivation to achieve them are increased when the employee can help
define and control how the outcomes are reached.
A General Concept of Style 2
– Coaching … “push” and “pull” the follower toward goal
A General Concept of Style 4
– Delegating … giving an employee the power to act in the leader’s place.
… Appropriate responsibility means the communication of a mutually agreed-upon
obligation for goal and task accomplishment. … Appropriate authority is the
legitimized capacity to act in the leader’s place when using resources to
accomplish a goal and its related tasks. … Effective delegation requires a
leader to understand the scope of the delegated goal and the related subtasks
Situations … The diagnosis
of employee competence and commitment should be done in dialogue with the
employee. … Boredom, lack of recognition, organizational politics, a change in
marital status, long-term illness, and a lack of organizational vision are
examples of factors that reduce employee commitment. … You must match
leadership style to development level.
6.4 Situational Leadership II:
When to Use Style 1 in a
One-to-One Context … Sharing the “big picture” might also overwhelm
someone who wants a limited view of a discrete, “hands-on” solution to the
When to Use Style 2 in a
One-to-One Context … 1. it is harder than they thought, 2. it is boring, 3.
the more they learn, the more they need to learn, 4. they did not receive needed
When to Use Style 3 in a
One-to-One Context … A confidence issue requires your revisiting past
instances of success, lowering the stakes through examination of possible
consequences for failure, and re-examining the strategies chosen to accomplish
the employee’s outcomes. … The drop in motivation could be the result of
your past leadership; the organization’s procedures, rules or constraints; or
it could be because the task/goal is routine, boring, and unchallenging; or just
the opposite, too difficult. … creative problem solving … job-related or
non-job-related … In Style 3, the action is open for negotiation, but the
outcomes are not.
When to Use Style 4 in a
One-to-One Context … Your role is to acknowledge, affirm and empower the D4.
Does Situational Leadership
Work? … the appropriate application of leadership style to development level
can do wonders for the motivation and morale of employees. … climate … Each
time you are about to influence someone, as yourself, “What is this person’s
competence and commitment to accomplish this goal or task?”
Development and Regressive
Using Situational Leadership
Theory … You must diagnose, and then be flexible enough to use the needed
directive and supportive behaviors. … Diagnosis and flexibility are the keys
to using the Situational Leadership II Model.
Your competence and commitment to do so are based on your disposition and
point of view – your character.
7. Vision and Learning
need a new heroic ideal: the brave, truthful, non-violent individual who is in
the service of humanity, resists injustice and exploitation, and leads by
appealing to our ideals and our spirit.”
Vision …. When leaders and
followers create and share a common vision, then enormous amounts of focused
energy, effort, productivity, and satisfaction can result.
Dimensions of Vision
vision is a picture of a possible, ongoing future you intend to create, one that
illuminates your guiding values and beliefs.
A compelling vision focuses on end results; it concentrates on where you
are going, not on how you are getting there.
The closer you are to achieving your vision, the clearer it becomes.
A strong vision crystallizes the needs, desires, beliefs, and values of
followers. It excites the minds and
hearts of those you lead by clarifying the purpose of the organization,
illuminating your guiding values, and providing your image or picture of the
future. These three ingredients –
purpose, values and image – are necessary for a vision to be strong, vital,
Purpose … a purpose
statement explains your company’s reason for existence. … stated from the
viewpoint of the customer and society. … to grow and be profitable, those
purposes are secondary to the organization’s inherent customer and societal
relationships. … a growth or profit purpose does not answer the question,
“for what purpose?”
Serving Customers … Every
organization serves someone …
Serving Society … embody a
noble purpose or relevance to society. … which people must become conscious if
they are to bring deeper meaning to their work … change the world …
Organizations that espouse social service, but evidence other behaviors, run the
risk of employee “whistle blowing”, and legal or economic calamity.
Values … guidelines or
values that shape the “hows” of the purpose … Stating values and making them part of the vision evokes
the passion necessary to remain focused in the face of obstacles, adversity, and
change. Values evoke people’s
emotions and feelings. Values can
nourish standards. A vision is
motivating and foreceful when it clearly resonates with the values of the
individuals within the organization. When
this happens, you don’t need to sell the vision.
People naturally enlist. … management occurs by values, not by
individual managers … [Ed. However, if you do not “walk the talk”, then
people recognize the hypocrisy, with negative consequences.]
Image … is a mental
picture of a highly desirable future state. … The power of an image lies in
conceiving the end state. … A clearly expressed image (1) lets you and others
know what success will look and feel like, and (2) creates a symbol to guide the
actions of self and others.
Gravity … A well
conceived, widely expressed, and consistently modeled vision influences
individuals working within the organizational setting. … when the
organization’s vision is clear and faithfully communicated, the benefits are
quite easily seen. A shared vision
can (1) unleash employee energy, (2) provide a “field” of empowerment, (3)
give perspective to individuals and teams as to how they “fit” in the
organization, (4) promote cooperation, and (5) contribute to proactive action.
… While you may be very clear about your organizational vision, you must also
have a personal leadership vision that includes a personal purpose, personal
values, and a personal image …
Starfish … There are
several important points to be gained from this story: (1) the boy acknowledges
a dream or vision, (2) he expresses that dream despite difficult odds or
conventional wisdom, (3) he acts on a dream that he may not fully realize, and
(4) he treats saving each starfish as a single incident within the bigger dream.
What’s Your Personal
Leadership Vision … To be a leader, you must affirm a socially purposeful
dream that enlists the hearts and minds of others.
You must be willing to express and strive for your dream, despite
competing forces that make the dream difficult to obtain.
You must act locally, but think globally.
You must treat daily activities as incidents within the larger context of
your leadership dream. … How can you express it through metaphors and
analogies to others?
Power and Leadership Purpose
Without a vision or dream
that is bigger than yourself, you are more likely to serve only yourself. …
You, as a leader, do have a responsibility to yourself.
However, that responsibility is for self-growth and self-development in
the service of others.
Without an explicitly stated
social purpose, the meaning of work becomes self-centered, and the covenant
becomes everyone for him or herself. Without
social purpose, power is driven by the unquestioned norms of hierarchy and
Without social purpose and
the leader’s faithfulness to such social purpose … The result is disorder
and lack of common purpose.
Power, within most
organizations, is exercised through hierarchical and economic control.
This kind of control motivates people through their need for “things”
such as compensation, job security, and desire for hierarchical position. …
There is no heart, no personal excitement, and no moral imperative in this
Without the purpose of
service, power is a means looking for an end – much like a gun looking for a
target. It is contingent on the
emotional, moral, and spiritual well-being of the individual who wields it.
[Ed.: but power corrupts, with negative consequences]
You are bringing meaning to
the lives of those you seek to serve.
The combination of
disposition and points of view shapes the way you go about influencing others.
The “So What” of
Personality on Leadership Behavior
Disposition and Leadership
“D-ness” and Leadership
Behavior in a One-to-One Context … Directive Behavior … Supportive Behavior
“I-ness” and Leadership
Behavior in a One-to-One Context … Directive Behavior … Supportive Behavior
“S-ness” and Leadership
Behavior in a One-to-One Context … natural teachers … quiet, logical, and
supportive … consistent … Directive Behavior … easygoing, pleasant, and
relaxed … In conflict situations, they tend to accommodate others and comply
with required changes to reduce instability or conflict … “S” leaders want
to serve people, not pressure them … Supportive Behavior … moderation …
may overlook things to keep the peace … challenge is to initiate and change a
situation or practice that is no longer effective.
Problems don’t usually go away by waiting for them to “take care of
themselves”. … “S” leaders must face change and conflict with the
optimism and skills they already possess, which are usually considerable when
“C-ness” and Leadership
Behavior in a One-to-One Context … Directive Behavior … Supportive Behavior
Values and Leadership
Leaders must reflect,
through their actions and words, the common values that live in their hearts and
in the hearts of their followers. Followers
must be convinced that the leader is a resource and ally for their dreams and
can be counted on to remind them of those dreams when forgotten.
… the follower’s
perception of self commitment and morale is strongly correlated with the
leader’s values or points of view.
Leader Values and Follower
Perceptions of Leader Behaviors
The only point of view that
seems to influence follower perception of leader behavior is the synthesizer
point of view.
… the synthesizer is seen
as a listener and one who asks for input, shares information about the self, and
prompts rationale building.
… synthesizers want to
listen to others, ask for input, and build teams.
Persona and Values Point of
Traditionalists and the
Morale and Leader Values
The most important finding
from the research is that the leaders’ values or point of view has a greater
impact on the followers’ view of motivation and morale than does the
There are a greater number
of correlations between leader value systems and follower perceptions of company
motivation and morale than between leader disposition and company morale.
It seems that while leaders’ personal values are not a predictor of
leader behaviors, they may be a predictor of motivation and morale.
A secondary point is that employee motivation and morale is not solely
contingent on leader behavior as manifested through directive and supportive
Challenger Point of View and
Follower Morale … it could be concluded that a leader who holds a challenger
or inbetweener point of view may be creating, or is at least partly responsible
for creating, a toxic work environment for followers.
Inbetweener Point of View
and Follower Morale
Synthesizer Point of View
and Follower Morale … Your means values of logic, justice, and inner
congruence, and ends values of integration of self with others, tend to produce
positive motivation and morale in followers you lead.
The End of the Beginning …
good leadership starts from the inside out.
The Expression of Character
The word “ethics” in our
culture, is derived from the Greek word “ethos”, which means Character.
One dimension of ethos or Character concerns the relationship of the
individual to the community. The
community’s expectations, standards, or ethics place “conditions” on the
preferences, values, and ultimately, the behavior of the individual.
Because both Character and character are essentially social, it is the
individual’s relationship with the demands of the community that needs to be
understood to act ethically. The
individual’s Character is expressed as the interactive result (behaviors) of
what he or she does with the community’s expectations and standards.
Definition of Character
… Character is the
consistently thoughtful demonstration of an individual’s values in light of
community expectations. It is
individual or collective action, over time, toward a humane vision, in a context
where individuals are faced with significant obstacles, competition, or
most important is the ingredient of a humane vision.
By humane vision, we mean a vision that involves the intellectual and
emotional commitment to equity in all human relationships.
Equity involves not only equality of opportunity but also fairness and
justice. It involves social ends and
social means. Equity means that what
we do to others, we do to ourselves.
is the essence of a humane vision that we want you to understand.
What kind of humanism is contained in the vision of your organization?
What kind of equity is espoused …?
essence, Character is about doing good rather than harm to others, whether the
harm is intention al or not.
… leaders’ core self …
[Ed.: heart in the right place]
It is not easy; it requires
thought. It takes leading by
example. … It requires clarifying the social purpose of the organization so
the purpose and meaning of the work is foremost … It means equitably sharing
the wealth, status, power, and opportunity to perform with all followers who are
competent and committed to do so.
Character on a Personal
Character on a personal
level is demonstrated by the commitment you make to the vision of equity in
human relationships, in any context.
commitment to equity requires leaders to be in the service of others.
It requires the patient understanding and effective management of those
whose moral consciousness resides in the service of themselves.
Your service must present a contrast of morals, which allows others to
choose equity and justice.