GENE SHARP A Biographical Profile

Gene Sharp is Senior Scholar at the Albert Einstein Institution in Boston, Massachusetts. From 1965 he held research appointments in Harvard University’s Center for International Affairs for nearly thirty years. He is Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.

Dr. Sharp, who has been called "the Clausewitz of nonviolent warfare," founded the Albert Einstein Institution in 1983 to promote research, policy studies, and education on the strategic uses of nonviolent struggle in face of dictatorship, war, genocide, and oppression.

He holds the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in political theory from Oxford University (1968), a Master of Arts in Sociology (1951), and a Bachelor of Arts in Social Sciences (1949) from Ohio State University. Manhattan College awarded him an honorary degree of Doctor of Laws (1983). Rivier College awarded him an honorary Doctor of Humanitarian Service (1996).

He lived for ten years in England and Norway. He did advanced studies at Oxford University, and in Norway he held positions at the University of Oslo and the Institute for Social Research

Dr. Sharp is the author of various books on nonviolent struggle, power, political problems, dictatorships, and defense policy. His writings have been published in English in several countries and in twenty-seven other languages. These include Norwegian, German, French, Italian, Arabic, Hebrew, Tamil, Burmese, Karen, Thai, Spanish, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese.

His The Politics of Nonviolent Action (1973) (Introduction by Thomas C. Schelling) was immediately hailed as a classic and the definitive study of nonviolent struggle.

His Making Europe Unconquerable (1985) focused on the relevance of civilian-based defense for Western Europe. It carried a Foreword by George F. Kennan.

His Civilian-Based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System (1990) examined how organized nonviolent noncooperation and defiance can potentially deter and defeat internal takeovers and invasions. This book was used in 1991 and 1992 by the new independent governments of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in planning their defense against Soviet efforts to regain control.

A collection of political analyses, Social Power and Political Freedom (1980), included an Introduction by Senator Mark O. Hatfield.

Gandhi as a Political Strategist, with Essays on Ethics and Politics (1979) carried an Introduction by Coretta Scott King, and the Indian edition (1999) contained additionally a Foreword by Frederico Mayor, then Director-General of UNESCO.

His first book, Gandhi Wields the Weapon of Moral Power (1960) included a Foreword by Albert Einstein.

Additionally, he is co-editor of Resistance, Politics, and the American Struggle for Independence, 1765-1775 (1986) and of Nonviolent Action: A Research Guide (1997), as well as a contributor to several encyclopedias.

A new book, The Power and Practice of Nonviolent Struggle, is in preparation in English. The earlier edition in Tibetan is being published with a Foreword by the Dalai Lama.

Dr. Sharp’s recent shorter writings include From Dictatorship to Democracy (English, Burmese, Spanish, Karen, and Indonesian). The Burmese editions were repeatedly denounced by the Burmese military dictators, and the Indonesian edition carried a Foreword by Abdurrahman Wahid, now President of Indonesia. The Spanish translation circulates in Cuba.

Dr. Sharp has in recent years made major efforts to prepare simplified presentations on the nature of nonviolent struggle and its applications against dictatorships. He has conducted workshops and consulted on strategic nonviolent struggle in several crisis situations.

He maintains that the major unsolved political problems of our time — dictatorship, genocide, war, social oppression, and popular powerlessness — require us to rethink politics in order to develop fresh strategies and programs for their resolution. He is convinced that pragmatic, strategically planned, nonviolent struggle can be made highly effective for application in conflicts to lift oppression and as a substitute for violence.

THE ALBERT EINSTEIN INSTITUTION 427 Newbury Street, Boston, MA 02115-1801. Tel.: (617) 247-4882. Fax: (617) 247-4035. Web: www.aeinstein.org E-mail: einstein@igc.org


Gene Sharp
Albert Einstein Institution

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

Books in English

1999 hardback Gandhi as a Political Strategist, with Essays on Ethics and Politics. Indian edition with a new Introduction by Dr. Federico Mayor. Original Introduction by Coretta Scott King. pp. 357. New Delhi: Gandhi Media Centre. (See 1979 edition below.)

1997 hardback Nonviolent Action: A Research Guide. Second editor with Ronald McCarthy. pp. 720. New York: Garland Publishers.

1990
hardback Civilian-Based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System. With the assistance of Bruce Jenkins. 165 pp. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

1986
hardback Resistance, Politics, and the American Struggle for Independence, 1765-1775. Co-editor with Walter Conser, Jr., Ronald M. McCarthy, and David J. Toscano. 592 pp. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

1985
paperback Making Europe Unconquerable: The Potential of Civilian-based Deterrence and Defense. 252 pp. London: Taylor & Francis. Second Edition (190pp.) with a Foreword by George F. Kennan. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1986.

1985
paperback National Security Through Civilian-based Defense. 93 pp. Omaha: Association for Transarmament Studies.

1980
hardback and paperback Social Power and Political Freedom. 456 pp. Introduction by Senator Mark O. Hatfield. Boston: Porter Sargent.

1979
hardback and paperback Gandhi as a Political Strategist, with Essays on Ethics and Politics. 356 pp. Introduction by Coretta Scott King. Boston: Porter Sargent.

1973
hardback and paperback The Politics of Nonviolent Action. 902 pp. Introduction by Thomas C. Schelling. Prepared under the auspices of Harvard University's Center for International Affairs. Boston: Porter Sargent. 1974 paperback edition in 3 vols.: I, Power and Struggle. 114 pp.; II, The Methods of Nonviolent Action. 348 pp.; III, Dynamics of Nonviolent Action. 466 pp. Boston: Porter Sargent.

1970
hardback and paperback Exploring Nonviolent Alternatives. 161 pp. Introduction by David Riesman. Boston: Porter Sargent.

1967
hardback Civilian Defense: An Introduction. Co-editor with Adam Roberts and T.K. Mahadevan. 265 pp. Introductory statement by President Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, and New Delhi: Gandhi Peace Foundation.

1960
hardback and paperback Gandhi Wields the Weapon of Moral Power: Three Case Histories. 316 pp. Foreword by Albert Einstein. Introduction by Bharatan Kumarappa. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House.

Books/booklets in production

2000 The Power and Practice of Nonviolent Struggle. (In preparation.)

2000
Mon
(Burma) Transliteration forthcoming. (translation of From Dictatorship to Democracy: A conceptual framework for liberation) (in press).

2000
Kachin
Jing-paw (Burma) Transliteration forthcoming. (translation of From Dictatorship to Democracy: A conceptual framework for liberation) (in press).

2000
Chin
(Burma) Gumshem Magam Lai Kaw Nna Dimokresi Lai De (translation of From Dictatorship to Democracy: A conceptual framework for liberation) (in press).


Books in translation

2000
Tibetan TseWa Spangs Pai 'Thab Rtsod Kyi Nus Shugs Dang Nyamslen. (translation of The Power and Practice of Nonviolent Political Struggle) New Delhi, India: Tibetan Parliamentary and Policy Research Centre. Publisher's Note by the Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche. Foreword by The Dalai Lama.

1995
Tamil No transliteration available. (Translation of The Politics of Nonviolent Action) 1035pp. Madurai: Vanguard Press.

1995
Korean No transliteration available. (Translation of Civilian-Based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System) 255pp. Seoul: Korea University Press.

1995
French
La Guerre Civilisée: Defense par Actions Civilies. 192pp. (Translation of Civilian-Based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System) Grenoble: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble.

1995
Latvian Sabiedrisk Aizsardziba. 200pp. (Translation of Civilian-Based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System) Riga: Junda Publishers.

1994
Chinese
(Mandarin) No transliteration available. 242pp. (Translation of Civilian-Based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System) Taipei: Avant Guard Publishing Co.

1994
Estonian Elanikele Toetur Kaitse. 107pp. (Translation of Civilian-Based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System) Tallinn: Infomare.

1993
Hebrew
paperback Hagana Leumit Ezrakhit: Tzurat HaLekhima HaAtidit 165 pp. (Translation of Civilian-Based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System) Zikhron Ya'Akov: Israeli Institute for Military Studies.

1992
Lithuanian
paperback Pilietine Gynyba: Nekarine Ginklu Sistema. 161 pp. (Translation of Civilian-based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System.) Vilnius: Mintis Publishers.

1989
Italian
paperback Verso un'Europa Inconquistabile. (Translation of Making Europe Unconquerable.) 190 pp. Introduction by Gianfranco Pasquino. Translated by Silvia Cortesi and Matteo Luccio. Turin: Edizioni Gruppo Abele.

1988
Dutch
paperback Naar een onveroverbaar Europa: De kracht van civiele afschrikking en sociale verdediging. (Translation of Making Europe Unconquerable.) 216 pp. Translated by Peter Kruijt, Wim Robben and Mark Hierman. Antwerp: International Vredesinformatiedienst.

1986
Thai
paperback Amnart Lae Yoothavitee Rai Kwarm Roon-raeng [Power and nonviolent strategy]. (Based on the manuscript "Power, Struggle and Defense.") 402 pp. Introduction by Sulak Sivaraksa. Translated by Chaiwat Satha-Anand and Komson Hoota-paet. Bangkok: Krong Karn Nang Sue Sasna Sanivitee, for the Coordinating Group Religion in Society, and the Komong Keemthong Foundation.

1985-97
Italian
hardback Politica dell'azione nonviolenta. (Translation of The Politics of Nonviolent Action). 3 vols.: I, Potere e lotta [Power and struggle]. 164 pp. Translated by Enrico Benucci, Manuel Vignali and Alberto Zangheri. Turin: Edizione Gruppo Abele, 1985; II, Le tecniche [The methods]. 338 pp. Translated by Alberto Zangheri. Turin: Edizione Gruppo Abele, 1986; III, La Dinamica [The Dynamics]. pp. 315. Translated by Alberto Zangheri. Turin: Edizione Gruppo Abele, 1997.

1985
Arabic
paperback Almuqawama Bila Ounf [Nonviolent resistance]. (Based on the manuscript "Power, Struggle and Defense.") 377 pp. Introductions by Daniel Amit and Jonathan Kuttab. East Jerusalem: Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence. Reprinted in 1989 and 1991.

1985
Hebrew paperback Hitnagdut Lo Alima [Nonviolent resistance]. (Based on the manuscript "Power, Struggle and Defense.") 256 pp. Introductions by Daniel Amit and Jonathan Kuttab. Jerusalem: Mifras House.

1983
Portugese
paperback Poder, luta, e defesa: Teoria e prática açăo năo-violenta [Power, struggle, and defense: Theory and practice of nonviolent action]. (Based on the manuscript "Power, Struggle and Defense.") 270 pp. Introduction by Paulo Evaristo Cardinal Arns. Translated by Getúillo Bertelli. Săo Paulo: Ediçőes Paulinas. (Out of print.)

1982
Dutch
paperback Macht en strijd: Theorie en praktijk van geweldloze actie [Power and struggle: Theory and practice of nonviolent action]. (Excerpts from The Politics of Nonviolent Action.) 235 pp. Introduction by Professor Peter Kooijmans. Translated by Jenny de Graaf. Utrecht and Antwerp: Het Spectrum.

1972
Japanese hardback and paperback Buki naki minshu no teiko: Sono senryakuron-teki apuroch [Mass resistance without weapons: Its military-strategic approach]. (Translation of Exploring Nonviolent Alternatives.) 262 pp. Translated by Komatsu Shigeo. Tokyo: Renga Shobo.

Booklets/pamphlets (in English and translations)

1999
Karen
(Burma) Transliteration forthcoming. (translation of From Dictatorship to Democracy: A conceptual framework for liberation).

1999 Spanish (Cuba) "La Relavancia de Gandhi en el Mundo Moderno." (Translation of "The Relevance of Gandhi in the Modern World.") pp. 33. Miami: Cuban Revolutionary Democratic Directorate (Directorio Revolucionario Democratico Cubano) and Centro de Estudios para una Opción Nacional (CEON).

1998
Spanish
(Cuba) "El Rol Del Poder En La Lucha Noviolenta." (Translation of "The Role of Power in Nonviolent Struggle." 19 pp. Monograph Series No. 3, Cambridge, MA: The Albert Einstein Institution.) 16 pp. Miami: Cuban Revolutionary Democratic Directorate (Directorio Revolucionario Democratico Cubano).

1998
Spanish
(Cuba) De La Dictadura A La Democracia (Translation of From Dictatorship to Democracy: A conceptual framework for liberation) 76 pp. Miami: Brothers to the Rescue (Hermanos Al Rescate).

1997 & 1998
Spanish
(Cuba) "La Lucha Politica Noviolenta: Su Poder y su Prática." [Translation]. Condensation of The Politics of Nonviolent Action Revised and expanded edition and new translation. 85 pp. Miami: Brothers to the Rescue (Hermanos Al Rescate).

1997
Indonesian
Menuju Demokrasi Tanpa Kekerasan (Toward Democracy Without Violence, the title of the Indonesian edition of From Dictatorship to Democracy) Introductions by Abdurrahman Wahid and Prof. Dr. Franz Magnis Suseno, SJ. 108 pp. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan Publishers.

1995
Macedonian No transliteration available 85 pp. (Translation of "Self-Reliant Defense Without Bankruptcy or War.") Skopje: Union Trade (with financial support of the Open Society Institute, Skopje)

1994
"Defense against Coups d'État", in Human Rights and Coups D'État (with essays "Coups d'État in 1992-1993", by Bruce Jenkins and "Coups d'État as Threats to Human Rights", by Charles Norchi) Occasional Paper #2, New York: International League for Human Rights

1994
Burmese No transliteration available. 88pp. (Translation of From Dictatorship to Democracy: A conceptual framework for liberation) Bangkok: Khit Pyaing (New Era Journal). (Reprinted 1996, 1997)


1993
paperback From Dictatorship to Democracy: A Conceptual Framework for Liberation, 79 pp. Bangkok: The Committee for the Restoration of Democracy in Burma.

1993 "Defense Without War: The Status of Civilian-Based Defense in the World Today" 14 pp. Occasional Paper No. 6. Honolulu, Matsunaga Institute for Peace, University of Hawai'i.

1993
Estonian "Soltumatu Kaitsepoliitika: ilma pankroti ja sőjata" 108 pp. (Translation of "Self-reliant Defense Without Bankruptcy or War") Tallinn: Informare.

1993
Thai "No transliteration available." [Against the Coup: Fundamentals of an Effective Defense,] 48 pp. Bangkok, Komong Keemthong Foundation.

1992 "Self-Reliant Defense Without Bankruptcy or War." With the assistance of Bruce Jenkins. 72 pp. Cambridge, MA: The Albert Einstein Institution. Expanded version of original paper under same title printed by Center for International Studies, University of Missouri-St. Louis, Occasional Paper No. 9203, February 1992.

1992
Latvian "Patstaviga Aizsardziba - Alternativa Saimnieciskaiam Postam Un Karam." (Translation of "Self-Reliant Defense Without Bankruptcy or War.) Riga: Ministry of Defense.

1992
Lithuanian "Savarankiska Gynyba Be Bankroto ir Karo." 80 pp. (Translation of "Self-reliant Defense Without Bankruptcy or War.) Vilnius: Mintis Publishers.

1991
French "L'Abolition de la Guerre un But Réaliste." 35 pp. Translation of "Making the Abolition of War a Realistic Goal.) Cahiers de la non-violence no. 4, Montreal: Le Centre de Ressources sur la non-violence.

1990 "The Role of Power in Nonviolent Struggle." 19pp. Monograph Series No. 3, Cambridge, MA: The Albert Einstein Institution.

1990
Arabic "Al-Intifada wa al-Nidal Bila 'Anf." (Translation of "The Intifada and Nonviolent Struggle.") 19 pp. Jerusalem: Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence. Reprinted in 1991.

1989
Burmese "Arnar Nint Naing-gun-ye Eí Gaw-da" (Translation of "The Role of Power in Nonviolent Struggle.") 23 pp. Fairfax, VA: Foundation for Democracy in Burma. Reprinted in 1992 and in 1993.

1989
Dutch "Progressieve politiek en geweldloze politieke techniek." (Translation of "The Problem of Political Technique in Radical Politics," in Social Power and Political Freedom.) 22 pp. Zwolle: Stichting Voorlichting Aktieve Geweldloosheid.

1988 Spanish "La Lucha Politica: Criterios y Métodos." Condensation of The Politics of Nonviolent Action ) 114pp. Santiago: Ediciones ChileAmérica CESOC. (2nd Edition, April, 1988).

1988
Dutch "Een einde maken aan onderdrukking: Strategiese problemen van de verzetsbetweging in Zuid-Afrika." (Translation of "What is Required to Uproot Oppression? Strategic Problems of the South African Resistance," in Social Power and Political Freedom.) 31 pp. Zwolle: Stichting Voorlichting Aktieve Geweldloosheid.

1988
Arabic "Kitah Al-La'Anf: Waseeleh Taaley Lilamel Al-Syassi." (Translation of "Nonviolent Struggle: An Efficient Technique of Political Action. An Interview with Gene Sharp" by Afif Safieh.) 31 pp. Jerusalem: Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence.

1988 "Nonviolent Struggle: An Efficient Technique of Political Action -- An Interview with Gene Sharp." 47 pp. Jerusalem: Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence.

1987
Spanish "La Lucha Politica Noviolenta: Criterios y Técnicas." Condensation of The Politics of Nonviolent Action by Jaime Gonzalez Bernal. 78 pp. Mexico: private printings.

1987
Dutch "Afschaffing van oorlog een realisties doel." (Translation of "Making the Abolition of War a Realistic Goal.") 55 pp. Zwolle: Stichting Aktieve Geweldloosheid.

1984
Polish "Walka Bez Uzycia Przemocy." (Excerpts from Chapter 1 of The Politics of Nonviolent Action.) 21 pp. Gdansk: (clandestine Solidarity publisher). Reprinted in 1986, Warsaw: Ad Sum (clandestine publisher). Also printed in the journal "ANEKS", (London), Issue 34, Autumn 1984, pp. 53-71.

1982
Dutch "Sociale verdediging: Afschrikking en verdediging door burgers." [Civilian-based defense: deterrence and defense by citizens.] 55 pp. Introduction by Professor J.S. van Hessen. Monographie no. 1, Winter 81/82. 's-Gravenhage: Stichting Maatschappij en Krijgsmacht.

1981 "Making the Abolition of War a Realistic Goal." 16 pp. New York: Institute for World Order, 1981. Reissued in 1983 and in 1985 by the World Policy Institute. Reprinted by the Association for Transarmanent (Aotearoa), Dunedin, New Zealand, 1986. Reprinted by The Albert Einstein Institution, Cambridge, MA, in 1992.

1980
Norwegian "Tyranniet Kunne Ikkje Knusa Dei." (Translation of "Tyranny Could Not Quell Them.") 42 pp. FMKs fredspolitiske skriftserie no. 3. Oslo: Folkereisning mot krig.

1965 "The Political Equivalent of War -- Civilian Defence." International Conciliation. 67 pp. Whole issue, no. 555, November 1965. New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

1964 "Civilian Defence." Co-editor with Adam Roberts, Jerome Frank, and Arne Nćss. 70 pp. Forward by the Honorable Alastair Buchan. London: Peace News.

1961 "Gandhi Faces the Storm." 71 pp. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House.

1958 "Tyranny Could Not Quell Them." London: Peace News.


Chapters (in English and translations)

1999 "What Are the Options for Action for Believers in Principled Nonviolence?" in Jampa Samten and Losang Norbu Shastri, eds., Professor Samdhong Rinpoche Felicitation Volume. Varanasi, India: Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies.

1998 "Nonviolent Action in Acute Interethnic Conflicts" in the Abraham Fund's Handbook of Interethnic Coexistence. New York: The Abraham Fund & Continuum Publishing Group, pp. 369-381.

1995 "The Power Potential of Nonviolent Struggle" with Bruce Jenkins in Nonviolence and Tolerance in Changing Eastern and Central Europe. Vilnius, LOGOS. [Reprinted in Journal of Peace and Gandhian Studies (July-December, 1996), pp. 19-26, vol. I, no. 4 & vol. 2, no. 1, New Delhi: Gandhi Media Centre.]

1993
Russian No transliteration available of chapter, book title, nor publisher name (transliterations forthcoming) [The role of power in nonviolent struggle]. Moscow, 1993

1992
Russian "Istoricheskaya Znachimost Narastaniya Nyenasilstvyennoi Barbi u Kontsye XX Vyeka" [The historical significance of the growth of nonviolent struggle in the late 20th century], in XX Vyek: Osnovnieh Problemi i Tendentsii Mezhdunarodnikh Otnoshenii [Twentieth century: fundamental problems and tendencies of international relations], papers from an international conference 21-23 November 1989, Moscow, sponsored by the Institute of History, Russian Academy of Sciences.

1992 "Nonviolent Struggle: An Effective Alternative," in Kenneth Kraft, ed., Inner Peace, World Peace: Essays on Buddhism and Nonviolence. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 111-125.

1992 "Nonviolent Struggle Today," in Graeme MacQueen, ed., Unarmed Forces--Nonviolent Action in Central America and the Middle East. Toronto: Science for Peace/Samuel Stevens (Canadian Papers in Peace Studies, No. 1), pp. 1-19.

1991 "Transitions to Civilian-based Defense," in Brian Martin, et al, Nonviolent Struggle and Social Defence. London: War Resisters' International and the Myrtle Solomon Memorial Fund Subcommittee, pp. 15-20. Reprinted in Church & Society (March/April 1991), pp. 17-23 and in Civilian-Based Defense: News and Opinion, vol.7, no. 1, May/July 1990, pp. 6-9.

1990
Hebrew "Israel mul Haintifada: Chalufott Mediniyott Vehashlachoteihen" [Israel vs. intifada: policy options and their consequences], in Reuven Gal, ed., I Hashvieet: Hashpaott Haintifada al Hachevra BeIsrael [The seventh war: The effects of the intifada on the Israeli society.] Tel-Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad Publishing House, pp. 38-43.

1990
Spanish "En torno a la definición de seguridad nacional" [Toward a Definition of National Security], in Sergio Aguayo Quezada and Bruce Michael Bagely, eds., En busca de la seguridad perdida: aproximaciones a la seguridad nacional mexicana. [In search of the lost security: assessments of Mexican national security.] Mexico City: Siglo Vientiuno Editores, pp. 91-96.

1990 "The Role of Power in Nonviolent Political Struggle," (Appendix A) in Ralph Crow, Philip Grant and Saad E. Ibrahim, eds., Arab Nonviolent Political Struggle in the Middle East. Boulder: Lynne Reinner Publishers, pp. 91-106.

1989
Italian "Difendersi senza armi: Le richere del programma di Harvard sulle sanzioni nonviolente," in Alberto L'Abate, ed., Richerche per la pace: educazione e alternative all difesa armata. Bologna: Nuova Universale Cappelli, pp. 125-143.

1989
Norwegian "En Sivil Komponent i Totalforsvarspolitikken?" [A civil component in a total defense policy?] in Kompletterende Forsvarsformer: En Konferanserapport [Complementary forms of defense: a conference report.] Oslo: Den Norske Atlanterhavskomité, 1989. pp. 13-25.

1988
Arabic "Dowr Al-Quwwa Fi Al-Kifah Al-La Onf," [The role of power in nonviolent struggle] in Saad Eddin Ibrahim, ed., Al-Muqawama Al Hadanieh Fi Al-Nidal Al-Siyyas. [Civilian resistance in political struggle.] Amman: Arab Thought Forum, pp. 9-26.

1987 "Civilian-based Defense: A New Deterrence and Defense Policy," in Yoshikazu Sakamoto, ed., Strategic Doctrines and Their Alternatives. New York, London, etc.: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, pp. 227-262.

1987 "Making the Abolition of War a Realistic Goal," in Wesley Cragg, ed., Contemporary Moral Issues, 2d edition. Toronto etc.: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd, pp. 539-549.

1987
French "Deux formes de dissuasion par défense ŕ base civile," [Two forms of dissuasion by civilian-based defense] in Les stratégies civiles de défense. St. Etienne: Alternatives Non Violentes (special issue), pp. 47-66. (Paper presented at Strasbourg conference, November 27-29, 1985)

1986 Excerpts from The Politics of Nonviolent Action, in Duane Friesen, ed., Christian Peacemaking and International Conflict. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press.

1985 "Civilian-based Defense Policy," in Melvin Small and J. David Singer, eds., International War: An Anthology. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press, pp. 291-304. (Excerpt from "The Political Equivalent of War -- Civilian Defense.")

1984 "Conflict Without Violence," in Fallon Evans, ed., Human Values in the Nuclear Age. Los Angeles: Immaculate Heart College, pp. 97-106.

1983 "Investigating New Options in Conflict and Defense," in Douglas Sloan, ed., Education for Peace and Disarmament: Toward a Living World. New York and London: Teachers College Press, pp. 50-64. (Reprinted from the journal Teachers College Record.)

1983 "The Need for a Substitute for War," with "81 Cases of Non-violent Action," and "Definition of a Few Key Terms," in Dimitrios Roussopoulos, ed., Our Generation Against Nuclear War. Montreal: Black Rose Books, pp. 279-296.

1982 "Civilian-based Defense," in UNESCO Yearbook on Peace and Conflict Studies. Westport: Greenwood Press, pp. 75-78.

1982 "Making the Abolition of War a Realistic Goal," in Carolyn Stephenson, ed., Alternative Methods for International Security. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, pp. 127-140.

1979
Dutch "Sociale verdediging: Optie voor West Europa," [Civilian-based defense: option for Western Europe, reprinted from Jason-magazine] and "Het politieke equivalent van oorlog: Sociale verdediging," (From "The Political Equivalent of War --Civilian Defense") in Hylke Tromp, ed., Sociale Verdediging. Groningen: Xeno, and Antwerp: Pax Christi, pp. 27-52; 87-110.

1979 "The Significance of Domestic Nonviolent Action as a Substitute for International War," in Severyn T. Bruyn and Paula M. Rayman, eds., Nonviolent Action and Social Change. New York: Irvington, pp. 233-253.

1977 "Methods of Inducing Change: Social Intervention," in Fred M. Cox, John L. Erlich, Jack Rothman, and John E. Tropman, eds., Tactics and Techniques of Community Practice. Itasca: F.E. Peacock Publishers, pp. 186-193. Reprinted in 1982.

1976
Swedish "Metoder för ickevĺldsagerande," in Adam Roberts, Civlimotstĺndets teknik. Stockholm: Centralförbundet Folk och Försvar, pp. 35-39. (Excerpted list of methods from The Politics of Nonviolent Action.)

1975 "Civil Disobedience in a Democracy," in J.S. Mathur and P.C. Sharma, eds., Facets of Gandhian Thought. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House, pp. 38-56.

1974 "An Examination of the Significance of Domestic Nonviolent Action for Development of a Substitute for International War," in Joseph Ben-Dak, ed., The Future of Collective Violence: Societal and International Perspectives. Lund, Sweden: Studentlitteratur, pp. 165-181. (Paper presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 1972.)

1974
Danish "Ikkevoldskampens teknik," (From "The Technique of Non-violent Action") and "Nationalt forsvar uden vĺben," (From National Defense Without Armaments") in Jens Throft, ed., Ikkevold: Strategi i klassekampen. Copenhagen: Aldrig Mere Krig, pp. 18-35 and 35-55.

1973 "National Defense Without Armaments," in Charles R. Beitz and Theodore Herman, eds., Peace and War. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Co, pp. 349-367. Reprint.

1971 "Mechanisms of Change in Nonviolent Action," in Harvey A. Hornstein, Barbara Benedict, Warner Burke, Marian Hornstein, and Roy Lewicki, eds., Social Intervention: A Behavoral Science Analysis. New York: Free Press, pp. 546-557.

1971 "The Technique of Nonviolent Action," in Joan V. Bondurant, ed., Conflict: Violence and Nonviolence. Chicago and New York: Aldine-Atherton Press, pp. 151-171. Reprint.

1970 "National Defense Without Armaments," in War/Peace Report, vol. 10, no. 4, (April), pp.3-10.

1969
Swedish "Icke-vĺldets teknik," in Adam Roberts, ed., Civilmotstĺndets Strategi: Historiska exempel och aktuella tillämpningar. Stockholm: Bokforlaget Aldus/Bonniers, pp. 31-57. (Translation of "The Technique of Nonviolent Action.")

1969
Finnish "Vakivallattoman toiminnan yhteiskunta," [The social essence of nonviolent action] and "Eräiden avainsanojen määritelmät," [Definition of a few key terms] in Pentti Laine, ed., Siviilivastarinta [Civilian resistance]. Helsinki: Kustannusosakeyhtio Tammi, pp. 24-44; 124-129.

1969
Norwegian "Ikkevoldelig motstandsteknikk" in Adam Roberts, ed., Hele folket i forsvar [The whole people in defense]. Oslo: Pax Forlag, pp. 17-28. (Translation of "The Technique of Nonviolent Action.")

1969 "Research Areas on the Nature, Problems and Potentialities of Civilian Defense," in S.C. Biswas, ed., Gandhi: Theory and Practice, Social Impact and Contemporary Relevance: Proceedings of a Conference. Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, pp. 393-413.

1969 "The Technique of Nonviolent Action," in Adam Roberts, ed., Civilian Resistance as a National Defense. Harmondsworth, England, and Baltimore: Penguin Books, pp. 107-127. Reprinted from the 1967 English edition The Strategy of Civilian Defence: Nonviolent Resistance Against Aggression. London: Faber & Faber, pp. 87-105; and the 1968 U.S. edition Civilian Resistance as a National Defense: Nonviolent Action Against Aggression. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books, pp. 87-105.

1968 "Types of Principled Nonviolence," in A. Paul Hare and Herbert H. Blumberg, eds., Nonviolent Direct Action: American Cases: Social Psychological Analyses. Washington, D.C.: Corpus Books, pp. 273-313.

1968 "Control of Political Power and Conduct of Open Struggle," in Mark E. Smith, III, and Claude J. Johns, Jr., eds., American Defense Policy. 2d edition, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, pp. 526-537. (Excerpt from "The Political Equivalent of War -- Civilian Defense.")

1968
German "Das politische Äquivalent des Krieges -- die gewaltlose Aktion," in Ekkehart Krippendorf, ed., Friedensforschung. Neue Wissenschaftliche Bibliothek, vol. 29, Soziologie, Cologne and Berlin: Kiepenhauer & Witsch, pp. 477-513. (Translation of "The Political Equivalent of War -- Civilian Defense.")

1967 "India's Dilemma: The Conflicting Demands of Peace and Defence," "Gandhi's Defense Policy," "Resisting Totalitarianism Without War," "Deterrence and Liberation by Civilian Defence," and three appendices, in T. K. Mahadevan, Adam Roberts, Gene Sharp, Civilian Defence: An Introduction. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, and New Dehli: Gandhi Peace Foundation, pp. 3-14; 15-52; 53-61; 117-134.

1967 "A Study of the Meanings of Nonviolence," and "Gandhi's Political Significance Today," in G. Ramachandran and T.K. Mahadevan, Gandhi: His Relevance for our Times. Revised edition, New Delhi: Gandhi Peace Foundation, and Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 21-66; 137-157. Reprinted in 1971 edition published by World Without War Council (Berkeley).

1967 "Social Power and Political Freedom," in K.P. Misra and Rajendra Avasthi, eds., Politics of Persuasion: Essays Written in Memory of Dr. G.N. Dhawan. Bombay: Manaktalas, pp. 58-86.

1966
Danish "Krigens politiske modstykke -- Civilt forsvar," in Hagbard Jonassen, ed., Aldrig mere krig [Never more war]. Copenhagen: Borgen Forlag, pp. 89-147. (Translation of "The Political Equivalent of War -- Civilian Defense.")

1965
Danish "Afskraekkelse og frigörelse ved civilt forsvar," in Adam Roberts, Jerome Frank Arne Nćss, Gene Sharp, Modstand - uden vold. Copenhagen: Borgen Forlag, pp. 62-82. (Translation of "Deterrence and Liberation by Civilian Defence.")

1964 "Deterrence and Liberation by Civilian Defence," and three appendices in Adam Roberts, Jerome Frank, Arne Nćss, and Gene Sharp, Civilian Defence. London: Peace News, pp. 44-70.

1964 "Gandhi's Political Significance Today,"in G. Ramachandran and T.K. Mahadevan, eds., Gandhi: His Relevance for our Times. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 44-66.

1963 "Facing Totalitarianism Without War," in Ted Dunn, ed., Alternatives to War and Violence. London: James Clarke, pp. 135-148.

1963 "The Need of a Substitute for War," in Margaret Penrose, ed., Pathogenesis of War. London: H.K. Lewis, pp. 76-84.

1963 "Tyranny Could Not Quell Them," in Mulford Q. Sibley, ed., The Quiet Battle: Writings on the Theory and Practice of Nonviolent Resistance. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books,
Doubleday & Co, pp. 170-186. (Excerpted from pamphlet edition, London: Peace News, 1957.)

Encyclopedia articles

2000 (forthcoming)
"Nonviolent Action and the Media" in Donald Johnston (ed.), The Encyclopedia of International Media and Communication, San Diego: Academic Press.
"Nonviolent Action" in Lester Kurtz (ed.),The Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict, Vol. 2, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 567-574.

1997 "Civilian-based Defense," "Coups d'état," and "Transarmament" in Roger Powers and William Vogele (eds.), Protest, Power, and Change: An Encyclopedia of Nonviolent Action from ACT-UP to Women's Suffrage, New York: Garland Publishers, pp. 101-104, 131-133, 534-535, respectively.

1995 "Civil Disobedience" in Collier's Encyclopedia, New York: P.F. Collier.

1993 "Civil Disobedience" and "Nonviolent Action," entries in Joel Krieger, et al, eds., The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World. New York and London: Oxford University Press, pp. 139-140 and 647-650, respectively. (New edition in press.)

1986 "Civilian-Based Defense," in World Encyclopedia of Peace, Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Articles (in English and translations)

1996 "The Power Potential of Nonviolent Struggle" with Bruce Jenkins in Journal of Peace and
Gandhian Studies
, New Delhi, Gandhi Media Centre. (Originally appeared in Nonviolence and Tolerance in Changing Eastern and Central Europe. Vilnius, LOGOS, 1995. See chapters above.)

1996 "Beyond Just War and Pacifism: Nonviolent Struggle towards Justice, Freedom and Peace," in the World Council of Churches' Ecumenical Review (Geneva), Vol. 48, No. 2, April, pp. 233-250.

1996 French(Haitian) L'Opposition a un Coup D'État," [Against the coup d'état]. Haiti en Marche, (Miami/Port-au-Prince) Mecredi, 28 August 1996 (Vol. X No. 29), p. 1.

1994
Italian "La Via Della Non-Violenza" (Italian translation of "Nonviolent Struggle: A Means Towards Justice, Freedom and Peace", presented in Rome, Union of Superiors' General, Catholic Church, Public Education Day, January 19, 1994) Il Regno (Bologna), July 15, 1994, p. 435-445.

1994 "To Stop Dictators, Present and Future." The International Herald Tribune (Paris), May 28-29, 1994, p. 6.

1994
English "From Dictatorship to Democracy" [Serialized in ten chapters in the English language section of this Burmese language newspaper, February - November, 1994] - Bangkok: Khit Pyaing (New Era).

1993 Thai "Buddhist Nonviolence and Strategic Nonviolent Struggle" has been translated and published in Sekiya-Dhramma journal of the Thai Inter-religious Commission for Development, January/February, 1993.

1992 "An Anti-Coup Defense: Prerequisite for a Lasting Democracy," (Lecture in the Faculty of Political Science at Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand, 5 November 1992), in Civilian-Based Defense, Vol. 8, No. 2, December 1992, pp. 2-5. Reprinted in Nonviolence Today, (West End, Australia), No. 31, March/April 1993, pp. 12-15.

1992 "Promoting Civilian-Based Defense: Lessons from the History of Development of the Policy," in Civilian-Based Defense: News and Opinion, Vol. 7, No. 6, August 1992, pp. 11-18. Reprinted in Nonviolence Today, (West End, Australia), No. 30, January/February 1993, pp. 9-13.

1992
Spanish "En Contra de un Golpe de Estado" [Against the coup d'état]. Economia Hoy (Caracas), 3 parts, December 22, December 23, and December 24, 1992, pp. 18-23.

1992
Spanish "En Contra de un Golpe de Estado" [Against the coup d'état]. Diario El Mundo (San Salvador), 11 parts, December 15-25, 1992.

1992 "The Relevance of Civilian-based Defense for the 1990s," in Civilian-Based Defense: News and Opinion, Vol. 8, No. 1, October 1992, pp. 2-6.

1992
Spanish "Defensa civilista contra la usurpacion del poder legal" [Civilian defense against the usurpation of legal power], in La Prensa (Panama City), 2 parts, March 22 and March 23, 1992, p. 2a.

1991
Russian "Nyenasilstvyenaya Barga: Luchshe Resheniya Ostrikh Politicheskikh i Eticheskikh Konflictoff?" [Nonviolent struggle: A better means of resolving acute political and ethical conflicts?], in Filosofskie Nauki [Philosophical sciences] (Moscow), Vol. 11, (Nov. 1990), pp. 78-83. Reprinted as a chapter in Eticheskaya Misl: Nauchna - Publitsisticheskiye chteniya 1991 [Ethical thought: Scientific journal articles 1991]. Moscow: Academy of Sciences.

1990
Lithuanian "Pilietinis Pasipriesinimas," in Lietuvos Aidas, March 26-28, 1991. [Three part edited translation of the conference paper "A Civilian-Based Resistance Component: A Contribution to Both Deterrence and Defense," prepared for the Swedish Ministry of Defense]

1990
Hebrew "Al Haoptziott Hapolitiott Hamodot Bifney Israel Lehittmodedutt im Halntifada Vetozoteihen Haefshariott," [Considering policy options and consequences for Israel facing the Intifada] in Medina, Memshal Veyehasim Bein-Leumiyim [State, Government, and International Relations], (Jerusalem), No. 32, (Spring 1990), pp. 71-79.

1990
"People Power Takes Center Stage," co-authored with Bruce Jenkins, in United States Institute of Peace Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, March 1990, pp. 7-9.

1990
"Nonviolence: The Path the Intifada Should Follow," co-authored with Bruce Jenkins, in The Return, Vol. 2, No. 5, January 1990, pp. 32-35.

1990
Swedish "Israel Fruktar det Fredliga Motstĺndet" [Israel fears the peaceful resistance], in Ordfront Magasin (Stockholm), No. 4, April 1990, pp. 55-59.

1989
"Nonviolent Struggle in China: An Eyewitness Account," co-authored with Bruce Jenkins, in Nonviolent Sanctions: News from the Albert Einstein Institution, Vol. 1, No. 2, Fall 1989. Reprinted in Social Alternatives, Vol. 8, No. 4, January 1990, pp. 43-47; in Nonviolence Today (Australia), No. 13, February/March 1990, pp. 14-18; in Dutch as "Geweldloze Stridje in China: Een Oogetuige Verslag," in Geweldloos Aktief, No. 4, December 1989; in German as "Organisation und Leitung des Hungerstreiks der Studenten in Peking--Mai/Juni 1989," in gewaltfreie aktion, Vol. 22, No. 85/86, 3rd & 4th Quarter 1990, pp. 62-69.

1989
French "L'action non-violente, meilleure stratégie pour les Palestiniens," in Alternatives Non Violentes, No. 70, March 1989, pp. 3-11. (Translation of the pamphlet "Nonviolent Struggle: An Efficient Technique of Political Action -- An Interview with Gene Sharp." By Afif Safieh.)

1989 "The Intifadah and Nonviolent Struggle," in Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 19, No. 1, Issue 73, Autumn 1989, pp. 3-13.

1987 "Nonviolent Struggle (Interview by Afif Safieh)," in Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, Issue 65, Autumn, 1987, pp. 37-55.

1987 "Deterrence and Defence by Nonviolent Sanctions" in Social Alternatives (Australia), Vol. 6, No. 2, April 1987, pp. 9-18. (Publication of paper presented at the Alternative Defence Strategies for Australia Conference, Brisbane, Queensland, July 7-8, 1984.)

1985 "Alternative Defense -- interview with Gene Sharp," in The Tarrytown Letter: A Forum for New Ideas, (Tarrytown, NY), No. 45, January 1985, pp. 3-10.

1984 "Disregarded History: The Power of Nonviolent Action" in Duane Sweeney, editor, The Peace Catalog, Seattle: Press for Peace, 1984, pp. 231-241. Reprinted from Fellowship, Vol. 42, No. 3, March 1976, pp. 3-11.

1984 "Nonviolence," in The Peace Pastoral: Renewing Perspectives, Reordering Priorities, (Proceedings of the National Committee Meeting for the Campaign for Human Development, United States Catholic Conference, October 28-30, 1983). Washington, DC: Campaign for Human Development, pp. 30-37.

1983 "Investigating New Options in Conflict and Defense," in Teachers College Record, Vol. 84, No. 1, Fall 1982. Reprinted in Social Alternatives (Australia), Vol. 3, No. 2, March 1983.

1982
Japanese "Senso no haizetsu o jitsugen kano na mokuhyo to surutame-ni" [Toward the objective of making the abolition of war a realizable possibility], in Gunji Minron [People's military forum], No. 28, 1982, pp. 101-116. (Translation of "Making the Abolition of War a Realistic Goal.")

1982 "Making The Abolition of War a Realistic Goal," reprinted in Peace Research Reviews, Vol. 9, No. 1, March 1982, pp. 2-22.

1982 "Effective Courses on Nonviolent Alternatives," in Focus, Vol. 8, No. 2, Winter 1982, pp. 102-104.

1981 "Civilian-based Defense as a Peace Strategy," in Peace and Change, Vol. 7, No. 4, Fall 1981, pp. 53-58.

1981
German "Gewaltfreie Aktion: Technik im politischen Kampf" [Nonviolent action: technique in political struggle], in graswurzel revolution, Nos. 51 and 52, December 1980-January 1981 and February-March 1981, pp. 20-22 of each issue.

1980
French "A la recherche d'une solution au probleme de la guerre," in alternatives nonviolentes, No. 39, December 1980, pp. 3-16. (Translation of "Seeking a Solution to the Problem of War" from Social Power and Political Freedom.)

1978
Dutch "Sociale Verdediging: Optie voor West Europa," [Civilian-based defense: option for Western Europe], in Jason-magazine, Vol. 3, No. 5, December 1978, pp. 14-21.

1970 "Gandhi's Evaluation of Indian Nonviolent Action," in Political Science Review (Rajasthan), Vol. 9, Nos. 1 and 2, January and June 1970, pp. 18-51.

1970 "National Defense Without Armaments," in Schism, Vol. 1, No. 4, Fall 1970, pp. 34-42.

1970 "The Origins of Gandhi's Nonviolent Militancy. A review-essay on Erik Erikson's Gandhi's Truth"), in Harvard Political Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, May 1970, pp. 13-14 and 34-39.

1969 "Nonviolence: Moral Principle or Political Technique?" in Indian Political Science Review (Delhi), Vol 4, No. 1, October 1969, pp. 17-36.

1967 "The Need of a Functional Substitute for War," in International Relations (London), Vol. 3, No. 3, April 1967, pp. 187-207.

1964 "Ethics and Responsibility in Politics: A critique of the present adequacy of Max Weber's classification of ethical systems," in Inquiry (Oslo), Vol. 7, No. 3, Autumn 1964, pp. 304-317.

1963 "Civil Disobedience in a Democracy: Constitutional Issues in the Committee of 100 'Secrets Trial'," in Peace News (London), Supplement, February 22, 1963.

1961 "Review of Leo Kuper's Passive Resistance in South Africa," in Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 5, No. 4, December 1961, pp. 395-402.

1959 "The Meanings of Nonviolence: A Typology," in Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 3, No. 1, March 1959, pp. 41-66.

1959 "Research Project on 'Totalitarianism and Nonviolent Resistance,'" in Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 3, No. 2, June 1959, pp. 153-161.

1959 "Review of Joan V. Bondurant's Conquest of Violence: The Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict," in Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 3, No. 4, December 1959, pp. 401-410.


Introductions and Forewords

1994 Foreword in Peter Ackerman and Christopher Kruegler, Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: The Dynamics of People Power in the Twentieth Century. Westport: Praeger Publishers, p. ix-xiii.

1990 "Bart de Ligt (1883-1938): An Appreciation and Assessment of his The Conquest of Violence: An Essay on War and Revolution," in Peter van den Dungen, Hermann Noordegraaf and Wim Robben, "Bart de Ligt (1883-1938): Peace Activist and Peace Researcher" (pamphlet). Boxtel: Bart de Ligt Fonds and Zwolle: Stichting Voorlichting Aktieve Gewelloosheid, pp. 4-9.

1990
Dutch "Bart de Ligt (1883-1938): Een waardering en beoordeling van zijn The Conquest of Violence: An Essay on War and Revolution," in Gernot Jochheim, "Bart de Ligt: De overwinning op het geweld" (pamphlet). Boxtel: Bart de Ligt Fonds, and Zwolle: Stichting Voorlichting Aktieve Gewelloosheid, pp. 5-11.

1986 "A Brave Example to the World," in Monina Allarey Mercado, ed., People Power -- An Eyewitness History: The Philippine Revolution of 1986. Manila: James B. Reuter, S.J. Foundation, p. 7. (Reprint of Los Angeles Times op-ed article of April 4, 1986, "Philippines Taught Us Lessons of Nonviolence.")

1972 To Krishnalal Shridharani's War Without Violence: A Study of Gandhi's Method and its Accomplishments. Garland Library of War and Peace edition, New York: Garland Publishing Co, pp. 5-10.

1963 To "Thoreau: On the Duty of Civil Disobedience" (pamphlet). London: Peace News, pp. 1-4.

Films and videotapes

1989 "People Power," a film by Ilan Ziv, featuring Gene Sharp, shown in Britain on Channel Four in July 1989.

1989 "People Power" a related, but more autobiographical, film by Ilan Ziv included comments by Gene Sharp, shown in the U.S. on the "Point of View" series of National Public Television in September 1990.

1986 Featured Consultant, Alternatives to Violence, a five-part series, with a Learner's Guide, funded by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Dept. of Education, through the University City Science Center, Philadelphia. [Inquiries to: W.T.L. Productions, Box 351 (S), Primos, Pa. 19018. Available on VHS and BETA cassettes (U.S.) plus NTSC and PAL systems (international).]

1986 Panelist, ABC News Nightline, show #1279, April 17, 1986, "Libya Attack: Debating the Consequences." (Transcript: Journal Graphics, 2 John Street, New York, N.Y. 10038. Tape: ABC-TV Nightline, attn. Pat Vance, Wide World of Learning, 825 Seventh Avenue, N.Y. 10019.)

Audiotapes

1994 "Interview with Gene Sharp" with Fr. Donal O'Mahoney featured on two Vatican radio short-wave broadcasts, 27 January and 3 February.

1986 "Conversations with The Christian Science Monitor," September 5, 1986 interview with Gene Sharp.

1985 "Making Europe Unconquerable", an address before the Cambridge Forum, January 23,
1985. (Inquiries: Cambridge Forum, 3 Church Street, Cambridge, Mass. 02138.)

1982 "A Case for Nonviolent Defense," an address before the Ninth Pax Christi (USA) National Aassembly, Rochester, Minn., October 9, 1982. (Inquiries to: Media Department, Catholic Education Center, 328 West Sixth Street, St. Paul, Minn. 55102.)

1983 "A Modern Alternative to War?", interview June 1983, tape #83-24. "More on Civilian-Based Defense," interview October 1984, tape #84-40. Common Ground Cassettes. (Inquiries: The Stanley Foundation, 420 East Third Street, Muscatine, Iowa 52761.)

Books recorded for the blind

1986 Making Europe Unconquerable, Readings for the Blind, Inc., 29451 Greenfield Road, Southfield, Mich. 48076. (Three cassettes, available on 3-3/4 ips 4-track cassettes.)

1982 Social Power and Political Freedom, Recording for the Blind, 20 Roszel Road, Princeton, N.J. 08540. (Shelf no. BL189 (five tapes). Available on 15/16 ips 4-track cassettes.

1979 The Politics of Nonviolent Action, Part I, Power and Struggle, recording no. 4591-79C (four cassettes), Volunteer Services for the Visually Handicapped, Milwaukee Public Library (814 West Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233).

1977 The Politics of Nonviolent Action, Part I, Power and Struggle, shelf no. AL 652 (two tapes). Part II, The Methods of Nonviolent Action, shelf no. AM 815 (five tapes). Part III, The Dynamics of Nonviolent Action, shelf no. AP 252 (five tapes). (Available either on 1 7/8 ips 4-track open reel tapes or 15/16 ips 4-track cassettes. Recording for the Blind, Inc. 215 East 58th Street, New York, New York. 10022.)

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nonviolent action in conflicts throughout the world.