Name:                 anurag gangal
Email:                anuraggangal@yahoo.com
URL:                  http://120874649.home.icq.com/index.html
City:                 jammu,
ProvinceorState:      jammu and kashmir
Country:              India
Age:                  43
Other:                i am a Reader/Associate Professor in politi cal science in jammu university, India.
Comments:             Professionalisation of politics is needed for establishing mor permanent peace in human minds,action and among nations in the world.

                 Professional politics is needed in this century.It requires dedication of revolutionaries like Mahatma Gandhi, Mao, Lenin,Marx and others. Otherwise,Hiroshimas and Nagasakis may always be there.In this age of technology only a great sense of professional discipline,training,education and establishment of  a  systemic  carving out of prospective political leadership can save coming generations for posterity. Amateurism and adhocism of previous century has no takers today.Exceptional dedication ,devotion  and training pave their way towards charismatic mass appeal.The professional help of political scientists must be sought in this matter. They can help establish precedents and set trends.Afterall politics is the domain of political scientists at large.Isn't it?
                 Despite inherent uncertainty of politics, its omnipresence and ubiquitous nature can never be put aside. "Politics" is a highly specialized field of activity.Such a specialized field must not be left to the mercy of self-styled political leaders emerging either overnight or almost from-no-where in the history of their own peculiar political experience. The need of the hour is well-embedded political niche of properly equipped political scientists and their commitment,dedication,devotion and determination. Political knowledge and discipline of a political scientist must become the raging path-finder. This is necessary to grasp the true meaning of politics. Politics must never be misunderstood as highly manipulative activity replete with corruption,violence,exploitation,terrorism,extortions and murders upon murders-of precious human lives and values-for POWER for ever more POWER. THIS IS NOT POLITICS AT ALL.POLITICS IS POWER AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE ULTIMATE  !
 END OF  SARVODAYA OR  WELFARE  OF ALL.                                                                                                                                                 
.                    Diehard politicians of today will never agree for their professional training and education. For them ,their experience and  rendezvous with life are providing real ground for lifetime training and dedication. What we need today is a "practical-idealist" approach quite like that of  Gandhi. This is necessary at all levels of  planning,formation, legislation, execution, judiciary,and policy-making.All such aspects need to be examined with a  meaningful participation of political scientists. This appears to be the only  recourse "for  cities" to have their long-over-due rest from their widespread EVILS.
                     Politics is there not merely by virtue of modern politicians and their political parties etc.The theory and practice of politics is in reality an exclusive realm of political scientists.However,the current perversion of "politics-as-it-is" does not depict the reality.Indeed,"Untill political scientists and trained political actors are rulers or the rulers and governors of this world take recourse to wisdom-of-political-scientists,cities will never have rest from their perversion of  politics today."
                                                                                              
                                                 
                 "  'Beware the fury of the patient man,' John Dryden had warned three hundred years ago. Unfortunately, the ruling authorities have excellent reason to ignore that piece of ancient wisdom."
                     Mahatma Gandhi,however,is more in favour of delving deep into the realities of life. He does not support  the present-day university system of higher learning .This is his position in essence.For him ,simple and  an activist approach to life leads to real depths of  knowledge. Life must not depend so much-as it is today-upon acquisitive instincts but on self-restraint,Aristotlean mean/balance and widespread normalcy  in socio-political order emanating from the individual.          Hence --  for ulterior reasons  - - if  we do away with  Gandhi in the absence  of  larger belief in nonviolence,truth, nonstealing,nonpossession  and brahmcharya  etc. , even then it is the following main concerns which are likely to dominate human minds throughout the twenty-first century:      
i) limits to growth
ii) impact of information technology upon man
iii) over-production of  conventional/other weapons
iv) over-exploitation of natural/other resources and ever widening consumerism
v) professionalization of  terrorism and similar acts
vi) modern technology,enviromental pollution,human survival
vii) preservation of depleting resources
viii) preserving political-ecological balance for a normal  life with little socio-political tensions
ix) religion of equality and humanity and not merely rituals
x) preserving dignity of man
xi) quality of life without degenrating aspects of modernity                                                                                                                                                                      
                             

                                      As such  Gandhian  "practical-idealism" is going to be the real IN thing of human rationality and vision in the twenty-first century. Whether we want it or not Mahatma Gandhi  will be there --  either in name or in deeds of the generations to come.No "commitments" can run away from this reality.[5] Priorities of our commitment must change knowingly.Indeed, "commitment" is always necessary for becoming a professional activist in any area of life.Gandhi has always been an activist and a political worker . His philosophy or "way of life" is also primarily derived from his lessons of life and "experiments" through diverse experiences. Most of  the present-day political leaders,however, are not able to learn so much from their life.Maybe because Politics is currently  considered more as an instrument of  subversion,exploitation and manipulations instead of the  Gandhian  sarvodaya or welfare of all.
                      Sarvodaya is not possible when almost every nook and corner of world politics  is  having  A POLITICAL LEADER  by virtue of birth, criminal activities,money power or sheer bullying of the gentle and  weaker lot.It is happenig among nations also .Gandhi had unmistakably foreseen this predicament in his Hind Swaraj in 1909. In this booklet, Gandhi characterizes modern civilization as a "disease" and "a nine days wonder". Even around the time of  his assassination on 30  January 1948 - specially just about two weeks earlier-Gandhi said ,  "this (modern) civilization is such that one has only to be patient, and  it will be self-destroyed." Given the present-day widespread  "balance-of-terror"- with its plans for mutual assured destruction(MAD)  even outside the purview of the erstwhile "cold war" today -- disintegration and destruction is continuing . We have it from so knowledgeable a source as
 Jan Tinbergen's Report to the Club of Rome :  "in the rich countries there is growing concern about the conservation of non-renewable resources and . about how  to keep the world in a stationary state." In the above mentioned contexts, a beginning has to be made. For Gandhi , "one step is enough" to start an effort.
                       The world into the twenty-first century is going to realize its past follies of giving the reigns of  politics  to "Tom,Dick and Harries" from time to time. Politics as an activity and as a discipline is at the apex of Aristotlean, Hobbesian, Marxian and Gandhian phenomenology. There is an oft-quoted phrase in English: "Let fools contest for forms of government." Indeed, if matters relating to government are left to "fools" then who will govern! Therefore, a first step in this direction must be high degree of commitment to politics by the modern political scientists. Political leaders must seek their help in every related area regularly. Political scientists must extend specially designed courses and training programmes to politicians -- obviously on a voluntary basis in the beginning. Such a first step can bring the modern  "Bizarre Politicians" nearer to realities of a normal political order away from manipulations and extortions etc. After all, the !
 company one keeps is also very important.
                     
                                                     
                   The twenty-first century has numerous other predicaments, perversions and emerging perspectives, namely, high conflict orientation of society and politics, technologicalized human creativity, the forgotten missing link between two hithertofore apparently separate  concepts of conflict and cooperation and  George Orwell's  idea of a "THINK POLICE" in future ! Alongwith this there is also the larger question of global degeneration of our combined  "global village". These are the major five directions of challenges before humanity today.
                    The first challenge is in the area of the prevailing Darwinian and functionalist notion of conflict, especially, the particular way in which man is generally trained, over several past centuries now, to THINK on certain given lines of thought. This view of conflict/war is based on Heraclitus's  noted  aphorism  :  "War  ( or  conflict ) is the father of all things ."The basic principle here is that  " as there are contending elements in nature, so there are conflicting ideas and interests among men .To Darwin . conflict is a constant phenomenon and the cause of evolution."  [6]
                     Johan Galtung  has, however , presented  a very  interesting  tenor  of  "A  Gandhian  Theory  of  Conflict" in  David Selbourne(ed.), In Theory and in Practice : Essays on the Politics of  Jayaprakash Narayan.  [7]          For him , "What  makes Gandhi different from other thinkers . is his insistence that there are no barriers  among men  which the goal of integration cannot transcend . an  integration  directed  against  no  one, but  rather . an  integration  for  humanity. Moreover, Gandhi is optimistic about the prospects for approaching, if not completely realizing, the ideal here in this world.
                     In the case of compromise, Gandhi very often spoke in favour of it even at points where it seemed as if  the struggle could be won, all grievances redressed , and the claims of a campaign of satyagraha  met in full . Such readiness to compromise can only be understood in the light of Gandhi's belief that the point is not to 'win' the conflict , but so to proceed in the entire struggle that the best possible basis for post-conflict life is established . A general inclination in favour of compromise , however ,does not imply any willingness to engage in compromise over fundamentals ."  [8]
                     This is clearly  a departure from the prevailing and  widespread 
 Darwinian as well as functionalist  mode of thought . Accordingly there are enough  repulsions , wars, struggles, contradictions, disagreements, confrontations, opposition  and conflicts in Nature. For Gandhi, each conflict is merely the result of uncalled for imbalances occurring through diverse human interactions. How can it be the basis of "all things" then? The real questions are: How can these imbalances be prevented? How  imbalances occur? What is the real basis of human nature in  its interactions from within and  from without ?
                                                                                

                         Nature lives  more by  attraction , inherent mutual love and peaceful orientations for Gandhi . Other things are largely  resulting from  misconceptions drawn on the basis  of  ages old  continuous search  for  modernity  in terms of  ephemeral  additions  of information  upon  every latest piece of iformation - mainly numerical piling up and  "loading/downloading". Gandhi is for permanent knowledge and truth. As such, each conflict is an opportunity for its "creative resolution" for peace and wholesome  development. [9]              Hence, for Gandhi,"Conflict was a challenge (which) offered (greater) possibilities of contact. with whom you stand in an interesting and significant relation." Such creative understanding of conflicts (and not just functional cooperation from moment to moment) is likely to become the foundation of the ensuing century. It is already scientifically seen, in above mentioned analysis, that how modern technological world is !
 going towards a logical end of having created a Frankenstein for itself in the form of uncontrolled surging ahead of technology today.
                       The only saving grace for us here is in an interesting answer of 346 members out of 378 members of the American Psychological Association. The question: "Do you hold...there are present in human nature ineradicable  instinctive factors  that make war between nations  inevitable ?" About 91% 0f members  replied  "NO".           This answer reflects  the essential elasticity and  teachability of man's mind.It all depends upon  the training of human mind ,body  and spirit  from the very beginning .We are teaching ourselves -till now-- the conflict-prone Darwinian and functionalist  syndrome. We all need to go out of this rut. T.H. Pear, J.P. Das, J.R. Anderson and, even  earlier,  Sigmund Freud  are  a few noted psychologists of the previous and current centuries - among several other contemporary  academics - who believe  in the basic need of keeping  a balance between  aggressive and loving  instincts  of  man . Otherwise, for them, conflict will  alway!
 s  be  the  outcome. Excess of "love" and  "aggression" both  lead  to  situations  of  conflict and  war .  
                      A general notion about human thinking  is  that  no earthly force should ever try to control it for such an act  would be in gross violation of  the current and  established  democratic norms .Yet  even  the modern democratic life-styles and  education are deliberately  being "implanted" into the minds of homosapiens!  Is  it not  indoctrination? Or  is  it "education"?WHY  CAN'T  THEN  A GANDHIAN  WAY  OF  LIFE  SHAPE   THE  FUTURE  OF  OUR  PROGENY? This will be more optimistic and fruitful way of  carving out our  more  peaceful  and  brighter  prospects.We have interestingly already seen that what  Gandhi  has said  earlier  is  being  proposed  by  the  modern-day  saner  elements  also.Actually,the socialists,Marxists,capitalists and  several others are  in reality talking in a Gandhian  vein. Isn't  it there a global vision emerging here ?
                                                                                                                     
                         The functionalist and Darwinian  conceptions of  conflict  and  cooperation  consider  these  two  aspects  as  mutually  opposite  realities (as if the twins shall never meet!) . While, in the Gandhian way of life, there is a link between these two apparent  opposites. This link  is to be seen in  the  "self-restraint" and  need of a balanced or normal  life. Therefore, conflict and cooperation  are not like two separate parallel  lines  of  geometry. They  are mutually  and  positively  interlinked.
                        What  afterall  is this  normal  life in a  Gandhian vision ? Answer to this question  is  clearly  available  in the  major eleven points  on page two of this  research  article.Even  otherwise  this  article is replete  with  the conception  of  a  Gandhian  normal  socio-political  order.   
                          The twenty-first century  is  still in its phase of infancy. It is growing  despite  a  vast  multitude  of  technology  related  problems. On  the  one hand, the world is getting "connected" into becoming a global village while on the other hand, there is " internautian" phenomenon  of  privacy versus information-explosion.Similarly, there is also  a  very  well-known  "captive-mind" thesis  of  Syed  Hussain  Altas  vis--vis  modern  education  and  on going  endless  automation  leading  to  degeneration  of  human  brain  cells  due  to  technological-product-radiation, over-exposure  and  under-utilization  etc. These are but a few examples of the "unfolding" of  the  present  century. In view of these realities, Mary E. Clark and  A.K. Saran  are interested  in "new modes of thinking" and  for a real "metanoia".          This  metanoia  involves  grass-root  movements  and  root-and-branch  transformation  of  current  direction  of  man's  t!
 hinking . Such action and thinking,however,would not involve  massive  efforts towards  "de-technologicalization" and "de-industrialization". 
                     In contrast to aforesaid possibilities, our present century is racing towards  "intercontinental integration and regionalization" of global society and politics. The European Union is apparently one of the first to go in this direction  by attempting to evolve common currency, security,foreign policy  and  by  upgrading  the European Parliament. George Orwell had  foreseen  this type  of  division  of the world into  three  major continents  under the overall  governance  of  a " think-police". This think-police --  obviously through technological modern tools of  audio-video paraphernalia - is supposed to police human  thinking  in  George Orwell's  1984 . As such, widespread  expansion, compression , technological  and  global  integration  alongwith  a possibility  of  an  optimistic  though  logical  metanoia  appear  to  be  expected trends  of the twenty-first century.Of  all these prospective happenings,only those can be regarded  as creative  whi!
 ch  make the concerned  imbibe and assimilate the spirit of the Gandhian way  by applying it  meaningfully  to the  contemporary   situation .
                                                                         
                                                                                          
                         Some socio-political experimentation may be sought for securing a better future. ".a small, autonomous Centre should be established, preferably by non-governmental public effort, charged with the following tasks: one, promoting Gandhian thinking through creative and holistic research; two, designing and conducting an educational programme in Gandhian thinking for voluntary novices; and, three, devising and conducting a programme for educators in Gandhian thinking. . The Centre will take only a small number of students who evince a minimum competence and real keenness to be initiated into Gandhian htinking and Gandhian way. Their material needs will be met during the programme, but no inducements or attractions will be offered. The method of education will be one that makes sufficient demands on students for self-education. Dialogue, discussion, meditation, thinking and guided reading, lectures too, if necessary, may be mentioned here as educational d!
 evices to be used in the Centre. This is only by way of illustration. Different methods may be followed for individual students. The idea is to keep the system as flexibly structured as may be consistent with the discipline required for the effictiveness of any serious  educational enterprise.
                          The aim of this educational programme will be to create maieutic design and a moral support-system for metanoia. The students will gradually experience a transformation of their mind, a turning away an turning towards, of their consciousness, a change in the centre of their thinking. A change in their character is bound to follow. . It should be clearly understood that in so far as  an educational programme of this kind is at all successful, the graduate (will have to be a very determined person to  succeed in life). . it is through .(patience) of such graduates that a Gandhian,that is, a normal, ethos may slowly come to be formed." 
                          Indeed, "new  modes of thinking" are the real requirements of  the twenty-first century.             Which way should we go ? It is for us to decide. The world is already going in one particular direction of  ever higher degree of technological advancement. Despite this, the modern technology has not yet touched  the level of refinement of having created a human-being :  full of life and vibrating with energy through medulla oblongatta. Only birth, live humans, death and blood are perhaps a few areas where modern technology has not yet been able to enter fully. Everywhere else it is there today. How long this current surging ahead of high technology can continue? Such technology by nature is ephemeral  in essence for what it maybe today; tomorrow it may become obsolete.                                                           
A basic poser here is how long can we continue and sustain ourselves         vis--vis hyper-dynamic modern technological perspectives? Is it merely a question of sustenance? Can we go even beyond the problems of survival and sustenance? Can't there be a global technological world resting on true freedom and dignity of the individual without any type of fear and terror?
               
                      
                                                                              
                                                   
References and Notes

[1] 
      Amartya Sen and Jean Dreze, The Amartya sen and Jean Dreze Omnibus(Oxford University Press,New Delhi:1999); see specially India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity, p. 87, the third portion of this                                                                                             omnibus volume.                                                            
[2]                                                              
      Immanuel Wallerstein and Others,Open the Social Sciences,(Vistaar,New Delhi:1997). Another aspect of this reference number two also needs further explanation relating to the real meaning of politics. "Ecology" literally means "planetary housekeeping" and not merely environmental and other types of pollutions. "Politics" is an all inclusive master science with its continuous concern for establishing hormony in socio-political system at different levels from local to global prrspectives. That is why political science cannot but enter the "political-ecological" for proper grasp of reality today. See also: O.P. Dwivedi, "Political Science and the Environment",International Social Science Journal (Canada:1980),p.377; Vandana Asthana, Politics of Environment ,
(New Delhi:1995). In the modern interdisciplinary  age, political science must put more emphasis on studies such as  highly systematic explorations in
 political-ecology, political-sociology,political-economy,political-psychology,
political-anthropology and political-history etc.For this purpose, opening up of
The Deparment of Political Interdisciplinary Studies can also be initiated at the behest of the University Grants Commission(UGC) in all the recognized
universities interested in such an exercise.
[3]                                                                         
      Robert Jackson and Georg Sorensen,Introduction to International Relations ,
( Oxford University Press,New York:1999 ). See also Mary E. Clark, Ariadnae's
Thread: Search for New Modes of Thinking,( St. Martins Press,New york:1989 ).                                      
Jag Preet Singh, "The Political Ecology of India", M.Phil. Dissertation submitted to the University of Jammu(Department of Political Science),Jammu on 
05 June 1998 ( the World Environment Day ).
[4]                                                
      Kanti Bajpai and Harish C. Shukul(eds),Interpretting World Politics:Essays
for A.P.Rana,( Sage&Vistaar,New  Delhi :  1995 ). Ronald   J.  Terchek,
Gandhi:Struggling for Autonomy ,(Vistaar,New Delhi:2000 ) . S.C. Gangal and
K.P. Misra(eds),Gandhi and the Contemporary World:Studies in Peace and War,
(Chanakya Publications,New Delhi:1981).Ashish Kothari,Understanding Biodiversity: Life,Sustainability and Equity(Orient Longman,New Delhi:1997).
[5]
      Sumi Krishna,Environmental Politics:People's Lives and Developmental Choices   (Sage/Vistaar,New Delhi:1996);Vandana Shiva,Ecology and Politics of Survival:Conflicts Over Natural Resources in India (Sage/Vistaar,New Delhi:1991).Also Anurag Gangal,New International Economic Order:A Gandhian Perspective,(Chanakya,New Delhi:1985).
                                                             
                                                                             
                                 
[6]      
       Krishanlal Shridharani,War Without Violence:A Study of Gandhi's Method and its Accomplishments(London:1939). Charles Darwin,The Origin of Spices by Means of Natural Selection  or Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life(London:1968);Johan Galtung, "Pacifism from a Sociological Point of View",The Journal of  Conflict  Resolution,(1959) No. 3,p.67. See also Johan Galtung, "Gandhi's Views on the Political and Ethical Pre-condition of a Non-violent Fighter",Pran Chopra(ed.),The Sage in Revolt: A Rememberence(New Delhi:1972),p.203.    
[7]      
      Johan Galtung, "A Gandhian Theory of Conflict",In Theory and in Practice:Essays on the Politics of Jayaprakash Narayan,(Oxford,Bombay:1985).
[8]
      ibid.pp: 100-101.     
[9]    
      UNESCO Yearbook on Peace and Conflict tStudies:1980(Connecticut:1981),
    pp-145-165. Ibid. ;  Op. Cit. n.7.
    
        Quincy Wright,A Study of War,Vol. 1.(Chicago:1942),p.27;Karl Mannheim,Man and Society(London:1942),pp.122-123.
                                                                                                        
        T.H.Pear(ed.),Psychological Factors of Peace and War(London:1950),p.162;J.P.Das,The Working Mind:An Inyroduction to Psychology,(Sage,New Delhi:1998);J.R.Anderson,Cognitive Psychology and its Implications(W.H.Freeman and Company,New York:1995).
 
        Joan V. Bondurant, Conquest of  Violence( Princeton:1958);also her another book (ed.),Conflict:Violence and  Nonviolence(Chicago:1971).   
     
        G.N.Dhawan,The Political Philpsophy of  Mahatma Gandhi                        (2nd edition),(Navlivan,Ahmedabad:1957); S.C.Gangal,Gandhian Way to World Peace(Bombay:1960); Op.cit.n.4.

        A.K.Saran, "On the Promotion of Gandhian  Studies at the University Level",S.C.Gangal and K.P.Misra(eds),Gandhi and the Contemporary World,
(Chanakya,New Delhi:1981),pp.-177-200,esp.-189,190.
                
        E.F.Schumacher,Small is Beautiful(New York:1973); Ivan Illich,Deschooling Society(Harmondsworth:1973); Arne Naess,Gandhi and the Nuclear Age(London:1960).       
  
        A.K. Saran,Op.cit. n.14. See also: M.K.Gandhi,Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule(Ahmedabad:1939).
                                            

                                                                  




        Mary E. Clark,Ariadnae's Thread:Search for New Modes of Thinking,
(St. Martins Press,New York:1989).

Note: More stress here is being put on showing how even the so-called non-Gandhian  (not admirers and followers) authors of our present-day world are thinking on somewhat Gandhian lines.