USA-IRAQ: THERE ARE ALTERNATIVES! - AND RESISTANCE IS
By Johan Galtung, Co-Director and Founder, TRANSCEND
Lecture at the Social Summit in Porto Alegre, January 2003
The ceaseless bombing and imminent invasion of Iraq by the USA
and allies, particularly the UK, is one more step in the geo-
fascist march toward world hegemony. It is "fascist"
ruthless use of blunt state power, only "geo" as long
as some US
democracy is left. Serving a three-point agenda--oil, bases and
Israel--other points have been brought up to legitimize war.
But these points can all be solved by governments, building on
successful governmental diplomacy after the Second World War. A
Conference for Security and Cooperation in the Middle East,
modeled on the Helsinki Conference for Security and Cooperation
Europe, CSCE, 1973-75. The initiative was taken by a small
country, Finland, the veto making the UN inadequate. Today
could take the imitative, or, even better, the EU. Participants
would be Middle Eastern/West Asian countries, with Germany/EU
facilitators, and the conference would last years. Iraq,
and Israel-Palestine would be on the agenda.
An image of a possible outcome for Iraq:
- as a federation with a Kurdish, a Sunni and a Shia part;
- Kuwait as an independent state could be associated with Iraq,
with open borders, shared harbor facilities, joint oil regime;
- a lasting UN inspection regime for weapons of mass
making the point that this also applies to Israel;
- a UN election monitoring of free elections for a possible
change, making the point that this also applies to the USA;
- lifting of sanctions, with emergency relief for hunger, DU,
An image of a possible outcome for Kurdistan:
- guaranteed human rights for Kurds in the countries they live;
- high level autonomy for Kurds but no division with secession;
- a confederation of Kurdish autonomies with passport,
An image of a possible outcome for Israel-Palestine:
- full recognition of Palestine within UN 242/338, capital in
- Jordan and Egypt lease some land to Palestine for some time;
- two Palestinian cantons in Israel (with some right of
- two Israeli cantons on the West Bank (with some right to
- a Middle East Community
Egypt modeled after the European Community, with open borders
trade and tourism, and economic/cultural/political cooperation;
- a Truth and Reconciliation process to undo horrors of the
Massive boycott of US export products.
In most countries civil society is ahead of governments in
massively protesting US belligerence and exploitation. There is
talk of boycott of US products all over, building on successful
action against the apartheid regime in South Africa, against
Deutsche Shell in the North Sea, and against the French nuclear
testing in Polynesia. The triggering event would be an invasion
Iraq, boycott would include the UK and participating countries,
would apply to Israel if a transfer operation is started.
The purpose of the boycott would go beyond material protest to
try to change US corporate behavior and to turn them against US
belligerence and disrespect for treaties and world cooperation.
The boycott would cover consumer goods from movies, CocaCola-
MacDonald to cars, capital goods of all kinds and finance goods
like dollars (use euros, yen and others) and US bonds and
demanding that governments do not buy and with corporations
from US firms, starting with the vertically most reprehensible.
The average profit of a US corporation is around 6%, meaning
that even modest participation will have major impact. Even a
decline in buying will place the trustees/executives in a
between loyalty to Washington geofascism and their own profits.
Likely counter-measures against a boycott will include:
- pressure on governments to outlaw boycott; problematic
market freedom is a major part of neoliberal ideology;
- corporations asking Washington for compensation; problematic
given the US economy in general and the federal budget;
- corporations cutting expenses to keep profits, laying off
employees, problematic because the high level of unemployment
- US boycott of products from boycotting countries; problematic
given US consumer dependence on foreign products and solidarity
(others may start buying from US-boycotted countries).
The boycott should be informed by gandhian nonviolence. The
task is to reduce and eliminate the US military and economic
on the world, not to kill US children. An emergency relief
for those who suffer in the US should be considered.
Massive human presence in Iraq
One hundred thousand Western foreigners in Iraq, among them
some hundred prominent persons, would probably stave the hands
of these aggressors; notorious for their warfare against German
Japanese cities. They/we would be there not to protect the
Hussein regime but to help protect the Iraqi people against one
more wave of Western genocidal violence, and US and UK people
against being co-responsible for this mass murder. Travel to
on foot, by bus/truck/car, by plane has already started, and
nervousness has been observed at the top of the US Army,
alleging that this "human shield" is forced,
organized by Saddam
Hussein, and hence against the Geneva Convention.
Their claims to be democracies notwithstanding, the USA and
the UK work with governments, by stick and carrot (like oil
for France and Russia?). These Anglo-Saxon empire-builders
learn what democracy means: that people stand up for what is
and put nonviolent power behind it. They should know that there
perfectly feasible alternatives to their bellicose fantasies in
building sustainable peace and development. And that peace has
be based on equality of all, including for the law.