To construct peace or democracy,

We are beginning to understand

better and better, is not limited

to signing treaties, demobilising

armies, authorising multi-party

competition or altering institutions.

It is further necessary, it is above

All necessary to make changes in

Which we manage inter-personal

Conflicts as much as group conflicts.

At the same time, innovations occur

In particular times, in particular

Contexts with particular persons.

Their spread beyond these circumstances

Then depends on the broader context.

Pierre Calame, Mission possible


Annex I

The Seville Statement on Violence (1986)

 Based on rigorous scientific evidence, the Seville Statement refutes the myth that human beings are predisposed to violence through five key propositions.

It is scientifically incorrect to say:


 Annex IV

Excerpt From An Agenda For Peace A/RES/47/120 B 20 Sept. 1993

V Post-conflict peace-building

Noting that post-conflict peace-building is a new and evolving concept,

Recognising the need for sustained co-operative efforts by the United Nations to deal with the underlying economic, social, cultural and humanitarian causes and effects of conflicts in order to promote a durable foundation for peace,

Recalling the provisions of Article 55 of the Charter of the United Nations,

Recognising also that the concept of post-conflict peace-building is aimed at the creation of a new environment to forestall the recurrence of conflicts,

Bearing in mind that each situation in which post-conflict peace-building may be undertaken is unique and therefore should be considered on a case-by-case basis,

Bearing in mind also that post-conflict peace-building should complement efforts at peacemaking and peace-keeping in order to consolidate peace and advance a sense of confidence and well-being among people and States,

  1. Acknowledges the usefulness of the proposals of the Secretary-General contained in paragraphs 55 to 59 of his report entitled An Agenda for Peace, particularly in relation to the range of activities for post-conflict peace-building.
  2. Emphasises that post-conflict peace-building should be carried out in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, in particular the principles of sovereign equality and political independence of States, territorial integrity, and non-intervention in matters that are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any State,
  3. Recalls that each State has the right freely to choose and develop its political, social, economic and cultural systems;
  4. Stresses that activities related to post-conflict peace-building should be carried out within a well-defined time-frame;
  5. Also stresses that post-conflict peace-building be undertaken on the basis of agreements ending conflicts, or at the request of the Government or Governments concerned;
  6. Emphasizes the need for measures to promote peace and co-operation among previously conflicting parties;
  7. Stresses the need for co-ordinated action by relevant components of the United Nations system, including contributions that the international financial institutions can make in the area of socio-economic development in post-conflict peace-building;
  8. Also stresses the importance for post-conflict peace-building of contributions from diverse sources, including components of the United Nations system, regional organisations, Member States and non-governmental organisations;
  9. Requests the Secretary-General to inform the General Assembly of requests relating to post-conflict peace-building by the Government or the Governments concerned, or emanating from peace agreements ending conflicts or reached after conflicts by parties concerned;
  10. Affirms its readiness to support, as appropriate, post-conflict peace-building.

Reproduced from An Agenda For Peace 1995, pp 92-94


Annex II

Excerpts from the Charter of the United Nations Relating to Peace and Conflict

WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED

to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war…

AS FOR THESE ENDS

to practise tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and

to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and

to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed forces shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples

CH I, Article 1 The Purposes of the United Nations are:

  1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means…settlement.

CH I Purposes and Principles, Article 2

  1. All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered.

CH IV The General Assembly, Article 11

3. The General Assembly may call the attention of the Security Council to situations which are likely to endanger international peace and security.

CH V The Security Council, Article 24

1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its Members confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf.

CH V The Security Council, Article 29

The Security Council may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.

CH VI Pacific Settlement of Disputes, Article 33

  1. The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice.
  2. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, call upon the parties to settle their dispute by such means.

 Annex V

Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation Among States in Accordance With the Charter of the United Nations

The principle concerning the duty not to intervene in matters within the domestic jurisdiction of any State, in accordance with the Charter

No State or group of States has the right to intervene, directly or indirectly, for any reason whatever, in the internal or external affairs of any other State. Consequently, armed intervention and all other forms of interference or attempted threats against the personality of the State or against its political, economic and cultural elements, are in violation of international law.

No State may use or encourage the use of economic, political or any other type of measures to coerce another State in order to obtain from it the subordination of the exercise of its sovereign rights and to secure from it advantages of any kind. Also, no State shall organize, assist, foment, finance, incite or tolerate subversive, terrorist or armed activities directed towards the violent overthrow of the regime of another State, or interfere in civil strife in another state.

The use of force to deprive peoples of their national identity constitutes a violation of their inalienable rights and of the principle of non-intervention.

Every State has an inalienable right to choose its political, economic, social and cultural systems, without interference in any form by another State.

Nothing in the foregoing paragraphs shall be construed as affecting the relevant provisions of the Charter relating to the maintenance of international peace and security.

 

The principle of sovereign equality of States

All States enjoy sovereign equality. They have equal rights and duties and are equal members of the international community, notwithstanding differences of an economic, social, political or other nature.

In particular, sovereign equality includes the following elements:

( b ) Each State enjoys the rights inherent in full sovereignty;

( c ) Each State has the duty to respect the personality of other States;

( e ) Each State has the right freely to choose and develop its political, social, economic and cultural systems;

( f ) Each State has the duty to comply fully and in good faith with its international obligations and to live in peace with other States.

 

(Reproduced from Ian Brownlie’s "Basic Documents in International Law" pp 36-45)


Annex VI

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Preamble

Wheras recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,

Whereas the people of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realisation of this pledge,

Now therefore, The General Assembly proclaims this

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

As a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

Article 2: Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made onn the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation to sovereignty.

Article 3: Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 26.2: Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

Article 28: Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in the Declaration can be fully realised.

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