Canada's Military Exports Increased in 1998
By Richard Sanders

The Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) recently
released its ninth annual report, Export of Military Goods from Canada.
This report lists dollar amounts and equipment types for Canadian military
exports to 61 countries during 1998. 

According to this report, Canada's military exports increased by 38%, from
$304 million in 1997 to $421 million, in 1998.  These figures, however, do
not included exports to the U.S.  This is the most significant flaw in
these reports because the U.S. buys more military equipment from Canada
than the rest of the world combined!

One of DFAIT's guidelines states that "Canada closely controls the export
of military goods and technologies to countries that are involved in or
under imminent threat of hostilities."  In light of the fact that the U.S.
led NATO's war against Yugoslavia and overtly bombed three other countries
in 1998, one might reasonably expect that there should be some restrictions
on Canada's military exports to the U.S.  In fact, however, permits for
military exports to the U.S. are not even required by the Canadian
government.  DFAIT's annual reports never include any data on military
exports to the U.S. 

Another flaw in DFAIT's reports is that they do not include any "dual use"
equipment, such as helicopters, that can be used for civilian or military

Despite Canada's reputation as a nation which values peacekeeping, we
continue to sell military hardware to governments which are notorious for
violating human rights.  Among the governments purchasing Canadian military
hardware are some of the world's most corrupt and violent regimes.  The
military and police forces in many of the countries armed by Canada are
well known to routinely engage in torture and extrajudicial executions. 

Below this table, you will find the key to "Military Equipment Types" which
are cited here.

A Partial Listing of Canadian Military Exports (1997)

Recipient            Military               Value of exports in 1997
Governments    Equipment Types               (in Cdn $)

Argentina      1                              $137,389
Botswana       10                           $3,728,231
Brazil         3, 10, 14                    $3,363,152
Chile          1, 5, 11                       $597,776
China          10, 11                         $814,170
Egypt          10, 11                         $622,403
Israel          3, 6, 9, 10, 11, 15           $783,455
Jordan          1, 10, 11, 18                 $187,795

Korea (South)   3, 5, 9, 10, 11, 14         $4,719,275
Malaysia        3, 10, 14, 18, 21          $91,792,358
Mexico          1, 3, 10                    $1,671,730
Morocco         10, 14                        $171,652
Oman            4, 11                         $467,940
Peru            11                             $69,550

Philippines     10                          $1,069,175
Saudi Arabia    6, 10, 11, 14              $29,800,192
Singapore       2, 4, 10, 11, 14, 18        $2,857,066
Taiwan          9, 10, 11, 14, 15           $3,202,336
Thailand        1, 3, 6, 10, 11, 18        $37,174,639
Turkey          4, 10, 14                   $3,531,616
U.A.E.          3, 10                       $4,123,639
Venezuela       10                            $523,106

Key to Military Equipment Types

1. Small arms and automatic weapons such as pistols, revolvers and rifles,
including certain firearms for sporting and competition purposes and

2. Large-calibre armaments such as projectile launcher systems and components.

3. Ammunition for categories 1 and 2.

4. Bombs, torpedoes, rockets, missiles, pyrotechnics, demolition charges
and parts.

5. Fire control radars, range finding sensors, ballistic computers and
related alerting and warning equipment specially designed for military use,
and components.

6. Military vehicles such as armoured personnel carriers and military
transport trucks, related equipment & components.

9. Military vessels and specially designed parts and components such as
engines, navigation systems and sonar equipment.

10. Military aircraft and helicopters, including transport aircraft,
aero-engines, parachutes and related parts and components.

11. Electronic equipment for military use such as communications and radar

14. Specialized equipment for military training or simulating military
scenarios, such as computerized trainers, aircraft and vehicle simulators,
and components.

15. Imaging or imaging countermeasure equipment, including photographic,
thermal imaging equipment and parts.

18. Equipment and technology for the production of category 2 products.

21. Software designed for military uses.