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Around Africa

We think in our office that Sierra Leone, like Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Ouganda, Lybia, Cameroun, Gabon, Egypt, Erytrea, Ethiopia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Namibia, Congo Brazzaville, South Africa town ships will need urgent help of the peace task force of the world if we want to prevent future tragedy in Africa and the world. (courtesy of Rev. Dr. Daniel Diafwila-dia-Mbwangi)

Algeria - 


bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Hopes ran high eighteen months ago, immediately following the election of reform-minded President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, that over seven years of virtual civil war in Algeria had come to an end. Today, in a fresh assessment of the situation in Algeria, the International Crisis Group concludes that the country's crisis is far from over - and the issues that lie at its heart have not been addressed. ICG's report The Algerian Crisis: Not Over Yet (20 October 2000) http://www.crisisweb.org/projects/algeria/reports/al05emain.htm highlights the core problems that need to be tackled by the Algerian government, with the involvement of the international community, if Algeria is to avert a re-ignition of conflict on the massive scale of the period 1992 to 1998. It sets out a number of policy recommendations - among them measures to stimulate dialogue between the government and the Islamists, redefine the role of the Algerian army in politics, and speed up and support a process of economic reform.

Angola -


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) Angola: Diamond trade in conflict with human rights - report DATE: 5/10/2004  SOURCE: IRIN  SOURCE WEBSITE: Http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=40974 SUMMARY & COMMENT:  Angola's diamond mining industry continues to profit an elite few, despite claims by the authorities of increased efforts to spread the benefits. Little has been done to regulate the lucrative diamond trade

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)MOVING CHILD RIGHTS UP THE AGENDA - http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=40501 The plight of former child soldiers and war-affected children in Angola is beginning to ease as they slowly reintegrate back into their communities, but new threats such as child trafficking and HIV/AIDS are emerging, the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) said on Friday. A post-war child protection strategy had shown "significant results", Abubacar Sultan, UNICEF's head of child protection, told IRIN. Around 3,500 children had been reunited with their families, and 3,480, including former child soldiers, were involved in reintegration programmes such as back-to-school schemes, micro-enterprise programmes for older adolescents, or child-friendly centres where they could socialise and discuss issues.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)U P D A T E  A N G O L A January/February 2001

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Arms and corruption with Angola:  President Chirac and President dos Santos have a lot of explaining to do, by Global Witness, UK

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Oil Abounds, Misery Too: A Case Study By RACHEL L. SWARNS

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)JOURNALISTS harassed and threatened in Angola

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Angola: behind the façade of normalization, manipulation, violence and abandoned populations.  By MEDECINS SANS FRONTIERS:  10 pages. Available at http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/reports/angola/11-09-2000.htm
bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Angola: A Tangled Web. By WORLD VISION UK.  July 2000. Available from http://www.worldvision.org.uk/world_issues/index_pubs_index.htm
bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)ANGOLA: The Client Who Came in from the Cold, by David Sogge; long time observer and activist, in Southern Africa Report Vol.15 No 4, 2000. Hard copy available from tclsac@web.net
bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH; ANGOLA section of their World report for 2000. 6 pages. Summary of the year’s human rights progress and abuses. From web site http://hrw.org/wr2kl/africa/angola.html
bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)UNITA – 12 peace proposals – Nov. 29, available from J. Justino (jj@esoterica.pt)

a)  NEW; British Africa Forum.
www.riia.org/baf (see especially the list of resources and reviews thereof.)  Alex Vines is the contact. hrwafricauk@gn.apc.org
b)  NEW: Paz Para Angola : www.pazangola.org ; Yvonne Lodico is the contact: pazangola@hotmail.com
c) NEW. www.angonet.org  Features many Angolan and international links; more of them are becoming operational. Development Workshop is the contact. Dwang@angonet.org
d) NIZA http://www.niza.nl/uk/campaigns/diamonds/index.html -Fatal Attractions
http://www.adra.ebonet.net   for project work, and chronology of events month by month (in Portuguese)
www.web.net/~iccaf/humanrights/angolainfo/angola.htm  contains current and back issues of  UPDATE ANGOLA (this is the site of Inter Church Coalition on Africa -Canada which  also has coverage on Sudan, Kenya, and southern Africa, and economic justice.
bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Angola - A Tangled Web: Many players in a complex war by World Vision, July 2000 - World Vision has recently released a report to highlight the ongoing chronic situation in Angola and prospects for peace. Called 'Angola: a tangled web - many players in a complex war', the report has two main aims: to raise awareness amongst the UN, governments, businesses, global civil society of the chronic humanitarian situation in Angola after almost 40 years of war.  Secondly, to raise awareness of the multiple actors involved and the capacity they have to build peace and end the suffering.  The report is divided up into 4 chapters. Ch 1 briefly outlines the history of the war and humanitarian impact, Ch 2 discusses the impact on children and what needs to be done to improve their situation, Ch 3 discusses the economics of the conflict, specifically looking at the international oil and diamond companies.  Ch 4 examines what has been done to bring peace, why the UN process failed and the emerging indigenous peace movement which is recognised as the most promising vehicle for peace.  It finishes with a broad range of recommendations to support peace efforts, raise levels of aid funding, improve business practice and better the opportunities for Angolan children. Authors: S O'Reilly-Calthrop, R Wandaragala, K Currah, B Campbell.  For a copy, go to http://www.worldvision.org.uk/world_issues/peace_building/angola.htm , where it can be read online and downloaded electronically (select 'world issues', then 'publications').  Alternatively, email: siobhan@worldvision.org.uk.  Contributions toward cost of printing and postage is welcome (£2.50)
bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Inter-Church Coalition on Africa: The STRUGGLE for PEACE Peace-building and  Canadian Policy - Roundtable on Angola, Ottawa, November 26, 1999 - report available at http://www.web.net/~iccaf/humanrights/angolainfo/roundtable1199.htm

Botswana - 


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) STANFORD UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ESTABLISH WORLD REFUGEE ACADEMY  http://www.worldrefugeeacademy.org/  After completing an education project at Dukwi refugee camp, Botswana in July 2003, a team of Stanford University students is now pursuing a unique education programme for refugee youth: the World Refugee Academy (WRA). Its mission is to facilitate the development of young refugees into responsible leaders and candidates for world-renowned universities. WRA aims to provide more and better opportunities for refugee students pursuing higher level education. The project plans to offer an advanced two-year preparatory programme for refugee students who aspire to continue higher academic study at leading universities worldwide. Its curriculum is designed especially for refugee youth and integrates rigorous academics, leadership projects and a mentoring programme.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) Peace prevails, poverty challenges remain AUTHOR: SARDC, Gaborone  DATE: 12/16/2003  SOURCE WEBSITE: www.sardc.net  SUMMARY & COMMENT: This is an overview of the Southern Africa region for 2003 from the viewpoint of SADC Executive Secretary Dr Prega Ramsamy. It touches on numerous major areas such as peace, poverty, HIV/AIDS and gender equality. Overall, while political stability has improved, there remains much to be done on many fronts for human development.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) GOVERNMENT CAUTIONED NOT TO IGNORE YOUTH OPINIONS - http://allafrica.com/stories/200404090176.html - The government has been warned that should they exclude youth opinions in decision-making they would be sitting on a time bomb. According to Kagiso Ntume of the Botswana National Youth Council (BNYC) "in most historical revolutions it was the young people who started the movement towards change." He also said that youth organisations that are in existence only encourage a lot of head nodding and do not accommodate the youth opinions at the macro level.

Burundi -


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)CIVILIANS TARGETED IN BUJUMBURA RURAL Just outside the capital Bujumbura, civilians in Burundi have been killed, raped and injured in ongoing combat between government troops 
allied with former rebel combatants and the forces of a rebel group that remains outside the country's peace process, Human Rights Watch said in a new briefing paper. The 15-page report, "Suffering in 
Silence: Civilians in Continuing Combat in Bujumbura Rural," documents how these war crimes have been committed by all three parties in the conflict: government troops, allied combatants from the former rebel Forces for the Defense of Democracy (Forces pour la défense de la démocratie, or FDD), and forces from the rebel National Liberation Forces (Forces nationales pour la liberation, or FNL). In November the FDD, whose forces are still led by former rebel leader Pierre Nkurunziza, reached an accord with the government. But the FNL, led by Agathon Rwasa, has not yet joined the peace process.
Further details: http://www.pambazuka.org/index.php?id=22885

Concentration's Camps in Burundi

AGNews  2002
Les camps de concentrations au  Burundi ? 

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)NGOS TRAIN YOUTH IN HUMAN RIGHTS http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=40211 A Burundian human rights NGO, Ligue Iteka, said on Monday it had begun the second phase of a programme aimed at training youths in human rights law. Launched at the weekend in collaboration with the French NGO Agir ensemble pour les droits de l'homme (Collective Action for Human Rights), some 25 youths aged 16 to 26 years from 18 human rights organisations will take part in the training.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) REFUGEES, IDPS FACING PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAUMA, AGENCY SAYS http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=41124 The Burundian Agency for Cooperation and Research in Development (ACORD) has found that the country's internally displaced persons (IDPs) and returning refugees frequently experience psychological trauma due to the severe living conditions they endure. Presenting ACORD's findings at a conference in Bujumbura, researcher Julien Nimubona said the psychological problems the IDPS and refugees experience was compounded by their state of dependence on humanitarian aid and their inability to participate in decision-making.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)THE UNSUNG HEROES http://www.monitor.upeace.org/innerpg.cfm?id_article=151 The story of Burundi’s heroes is one of humanity against all odds. It is a story of courage in the midst of crisis, of defiance in the face of danger, of compassion in a sea of callousness. When everyone around them told them to accept the status quo of blood and brutality, these Burundian heroes chose to listen to their internal voices. It meant risking their own lives, and those of their family in some cases, to save that of another. For many, it meant ongoing danger and difficulty long after the moment of their act of courage. It was a moment for which they had not prepared or planned. Susan Koscis writes about these heroes in the latest edition of the Peace and Conflict Monitor.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) GOVERNMENT LAUNCHES CHILD SOLDIERS' REHABILITATION PROGRAMME - The Burundian government, in collaboration with the International Labour Organisation's (ILO) international programme for the eradication of child labour, has launched a three-year programme on the rehabilitation of former child soldiers. During the launch on Monday, Labour Minister Dismas Nditabiriye said the US $1.4-million programme would work in conjunction with a national child demobilisation and rehabilitation programme already in place. Further details: http://www.pambazuka.org/index.php?id=22251

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)International Crisis Group's briefing Burundi Peace Process: Tough Challenges Ahead (27 August 2000) http://www.crisisweb.org/projects/burundi/reports/bu14main.htm gauges the political mood in Burundi on the eve of the signing of the Arusha accord and takes a close look at the hurdles that still have to be cleared to make way for lasting peace. The briefing argues that while the Arusha accord represents the end of a two-year negotiating process, it is merely one step on the road towards a comprehensive settlement.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) WINNING BACK BURUNDI'S CHILD SOLDIERS http://irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=34033 In his December 2002 report to the UN Security Council, Secretary-General Kofi Annan identified Burundi as one of five conflict-ridden countries across the world where children were being used as soldiers. However, while most of the armed groups named by Annan were opposition factions, his UN report pointed a finger at the Burundian government for abusing children by sending them to the frontline.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)EQUAL ACCESS TO EDUCATION IN PEACE IMPERATIVE FOR BURUNDI, International Alert, June 2000.  This report from International Alert reflects recent interviews throughout Burundi with students, teachers, government officials and others:  "Key to our analysis is the relationship between education and conflict.  Exclusion has been at the heart of Burundi's cyclical conflicts since Independence: large sections of the Burundian people are in practice excluded from opportunities for personal advancement and entry into the institutions of the state. This exclusion begins with differential access to education, caused by factors which can include geography, gender, ethnicity, family poverty and a seriously under-resourced Ministry - all need to be addressed.  "Our concern is that if the internal environment is not seen to be becoming more inclusive early in a transition period, the possibility of a lasting peace will be remote. Making educational opportunities fairer now is therefore vital - as a means to peace and an end in itself - and donor commitment and resources are urgently required.  "Education is of key importance to the success of the Burundi peace process, now, it is hoped, in its closing stages.  However, the education system urgently needs expanding and improving.  By analysing the relationship between conflict and education in Burundi in the past we can argue its vital significance for the future."  The report can be ordered in French or English by contacting: Antonia Thomas, International Alert, 1 Glyn Street, London SE11 5HT, UK. Tel: +44 20 7793 8383; Fax: +44 20 2293 7975; Email: athomas@international-alert.org .  The report can also be accessed (in French and English) on the International Alert website: www.international-alert.org

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)UNLOCKING HORNS: FORGIVENESS AND RECONCILIATION IN BURUNDI - (From the Coexistence Noticeboard, 13 December 2001) Authors: David Niyonzima and Lon Fendall. This book gives a brief history of the conflict in Burundi from pre-colonial times to the present, the role of the Christian churches and particularly the Friends (Quaker) Church in working towards forgiveness and reconciliation.  Published by Barclay Press, ISBN: 0913342971; Cost:  $12.95. For further information, contact: African Great Lakes Initiative, c/o David Zarembka, 7785 Alicia Court, Maplewood, MO 63143, USA. Email: davidzarembka@juno.com. Or see the Barclay Press website at: www.barclaypress.com

Burkina Faso - 


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)HELPING GIRLS TO KEEP MARRIAGE UNDER WRAPS http://www.ipsnews.net/africa/interna.asp?idnews=23002 It is an article of faith in development circles that assisting girls to complete their education – and postponing the age at which they have children – benefits both the girls and the communities they live in. This truth is proving difficult to entrench in Burkina Faso, however, where early marriages – and, worse still, forced marriages – are often the norm. This is despite a 1990 law that sets the marriage age for girls at 18, and for boys at 22.

Central African Republic - 


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Central African Republic: Major challenges remain one year after end of rebellion.  Daniel Boyssembe  3/16/2004  SOURCE: IRIN/ Bangui SOURCE WEBSITE: IRIN  SUMMARY & COMMENT: To destroy is easier than to restore. Francois Bozize, Leader of the Central African Republic, learned this lesson well one year after he ousted President Ange-Felix Patasse. The transition is due to end in January 2005. 

Chad -


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)DARFUR ATROCITIES SPILL INTO CHAD Backed by the Sudanese government, Janjaweed militias are launching assaults across the border into Chad, attacking and looting Chadian villagers as well as refugees from Darfur, Human Rights Watch said recently. Despite a ceasefire agreement in Darfur, government troops and Janjaweed militias continue to commit atrocities in the western Sudanese region. Human Rights Watch documented at least seven cross-border incursions into Chad conducted by the Janjaweed militias since early June. The Janjaweed attack villages in Chad and refugees from Darfur, and also steal cattle. The same Arab and African ethnic groups live on both sides of border in Chad and Darfur.Further details: http://www.pambazuka.org/index.php?id=22883

Cote d'Ivoire -


bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)International Symposium on Côte d'Ivoire: Consolidating a Fragile Peace 15 Jan 04 - Saint Paul University, Ottawa

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Guei, IBB, Abacha and the lesson of history By Francis Obinor, Foreign Affairs Reporter

The Cote d'Ivoire army is continuing to recruit young Liberians from Guiglo refugee camp in the west of the country to fight against Ivorian rebel forces in the area, according to UN officials and Liberian residents in the camp and the commander of French peacekeeping forces in the area.



by Innocent Balemba

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)A HISTORY OF THE DRC IN ONE LINE: LEOPOLD, RESOURCES, COUPS, IMPUNITY an interview with Joseph Yav Katshung, Executive Director of CERDH (Centre d`Etudes et de Recherche en Droits de l`Homme et Démocratie)

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)A WEAPON OF WAR: SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN SOUTH KIVU, DRC by Arche D'Alliance

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)INFO-CONGO/KINSHASA April - May - June 2001

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) UN report on Congo minerals

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Tshisekedi Proposals to USA re democratic reforms

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)A Brief History of Colonialism in Congo by Marty Jezer

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Scramble for the Congo: Anatomy of an Ugly War

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Scramble for the Congo: Anatomy of an Ugly War

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Proposals for Canadian government policy towards Congo and Central africa Region.

 bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)DRC: DRC CASTS OUT ITS 'CHILD WITCHES' http://www.mg.co.za/Content/l3.asp?a=37&o=20092 Witches haunt Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo's violent capital. With pinched faces, bloodshot eyes and swollen bellies, they are horrifying to see; plaguing the city's streets by day, and retiring when nights falls to stinking graveyards and typhus alleys. And all of them are children. Olivier's plight is all too common in war-ravaged Congo. According to Save the Children, of Kinshasa's estimated 30 000 street-children, virtually all have been abandoned by their families, having been accused of witchcraft.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)THE CONFLICT CYCLE: WHICH WAY OUT IN THE KIVUS? THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.  A New Book of 194 Pages Published by African Rights.  In a forthcoming book, 'The Conflict Cycle: Which Way Out in the Kivus?' African Rights examines the relevance of the peace process to the situation in North and South Kivu in Eastern DRC. Men and women from across the ethnic and political spectrum give their views on the nature of the conflict and the way forward. While most of those interviewed welcomed the Lusaka Accords, their comments on the central peace initiatives were revealing.  They suggest that, even if the agreement were to be respected, it alone cannot address the series of distinct but interwoven conflicts in the Kivus, some of which preceded the current war and have their own dynamic.  The book discusses the plight of the residents of North and South Kivu for whom peace remains a distant prospect. For decades, this region has been affected by the fallout of wars and political upheavals on its borders with Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi. The latest war in the DRC, and its predecessor in 1996, began in the Kivus. The territories are now home to the RCD rebels, Rwandese troops and several militia groups. They are highly militarized
zones and have been the site of massive human suffering. The people of the Kivus have expressed historical grievances in this war, but through it they have also learnt new ones. The economy and society of the Kivus has been devastated and ethnic tensions have been inflamed.  For further information, contact: African Rights, P.O. Box 18368, London, EC4A 4JE, UK. Tel: +44 (0)20 7947 3276; Fax: +44 (0)20 7947 3201; Email:
afrights@gn.apc.org ; Website: www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~afrights

 bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)WORST CONFLICT SINCE WW2 http://www.theirc.org/index.cfm?section=news&wwwID=1704 The four and a half year war in the Democratic Republic of Congo has taken more lives than any other since World War II and is the deadliest documented conflict in African history, says the International Rescue Committee. A mortality study released this week by the IRC estimates that since August 1998, when the war erupted, through November 2002 when the survey was completed, at least 3.3 million people died in excess of what would normally be expected during this time.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) THE LOST WORLD WAR http://www.corporatewatch.org.uk/newsletter/issue13/issue13_part3.htm Either side of an 1800 mile front-line, a country the size of western Europe with a population no larger than England’s has been carved up by warring factions and foreign armies from nine different countries, leaving millions dead or homeless. What little infrastructure dictator Mobutu Sese Seko did not wreck during his three decades of misrule has mostly been destroyed by fighting, or has finally succumbed to neglect. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is possibly the most mineral rich place on earth – though this has proved a curse to the people of the Congo. The Congo holds millions of tons of diamonds, copper, cobalt, zinc, manganese, uranium (the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were built using Congolese uranium), and coltan. Coltan, a substance made up of columbium and tantalum, is a particularly valuable resource – used to make mobile phones, night vision goggles, fiber optics, and micro-capacitors. The war on Iraq, says this article in the latest Corporate Watch newsletter, is not the only war in the world and it is not the only war being fought for our material benefit. Western consumers' seemingly insatiable demand for mobile phones, laptops, games consoles and other luxury electronic goods has been fuelling violent conflict and killing millions in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)ONE NATION, ONE STATE? REBUILDING POST-WAR ERITREA - Contributor(s): Janet Gruber - Wolfson College, (from ID21 News, Issue 45).  After thirty years of war, Eritrean exiles returned home after liberation in 1991 and  independence in 1993. How did the post-war government set about the monumental task of  reviving a population and an economy destroyed by conflict? A recent study by the University of Oxford, poses two key questions. How are returnees integrating into the fabric of the  newly
independent Eritrea? What is the effect of government initiatives to transform  deep-rooted traditions and practices? Have reintegration programmes been sufficiently  participatory to prevent tension between the local population and returnees? The research  further questions the description of these programmes as 'reintegratory': do they not  prevent returnees - with their differing experiences, expectations and needs - from taking  part in negotiated debate?  For a summary of the study, see:
http://www.id21.org/static/10cjg1.htm .  For further information, contact: Janet Gruber, Wolfson College, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6UD, UK. Tel: +291 1 12 58 77 (Eritrea); Email: janetgvonk@hotmail.com ; asmara.janet@virgin.net
bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Text of Agreement Between Eritrea and Ethiopia to be signed in Algiers, 12 December 2000



NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)SMALLHOLDER FARMERS BATTLING POVERTY THROUGH COOPERATIVES http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=41594 Cooperatives are playing a key role in helping impoverished Ethiopian farmers escape from the cycle of poverty, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) said on Wednesday. Ethiopia's cooperatives were vital in helping to promote rural economic development and getting farmers a fairer price for their crops, USAID said in a statement. "Cooperatives are an important means to bring smallholder farmers together to open new markets and receive higher prices for their produce," it said.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)ETHIOPIA RATIFIES PROTOCOL Almost a year after its adoption of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa on July 11 2003, Maputo Mozambique, The Republic of Ethiopia on June 2, 2004 joined the Comoros to become the second country that has signed and ratified it. Twenty-seven other member states have signed it but are yet to ratify it as at June 7, 2004 . 13 more countries must ratify it in order for the Protocol to come into force.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Genocide Watch has received numerous reports of genocidal massacres of Anuak people in and around Gambella , Ethiopia in December 2003. At least 416 Anuak people were murdered. The massacres were led by Ethiopian government troops in uniform, but they were joined by local people from highland areas.  Genocide Watch has checked these reports carefully with eyewitnesses in Gambella as well as with the United States State Department and the United Nations, who have confirmed that the massacres were committed by Ethiopian government forces.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)GENOCIDE IN ETHIOPIA? - http://www.oneworld.net/article/view/83811/1/ A Canada-based representative of the Anuak Survival Organisation has given chilling testimony on a genocide being perpetrated against the Anuak people in Gambella Province, Ethiopia. Obang Metho spoke to a special UN Human Rights Commission meeting in Geneva on April 8, 2004. Mr. Metho said, “I speak to you as the representative of a forgotten people, the Anuak (or Anywaa) of Ethiopia. We number only 100,000 persons in the Gambella province of south-western Ethiopia. Our province is the tongue of fertile land, rich with natural resources such as oil, gold and other minerals that extends into southern Sudan. In the past four months, over 1137 Anuak have been murdered by the Ethiopian defense forces and some others from the highland.”

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)LESSONS FROM THE PAST, AGENDAS FOR THE FUTURE - Contributor: June Rock, Lionel Cliffe, Seifulaziz Milas, Jalal Abdel Latif, Amanuel Mehreteab, Christian Sorensen, Yohannes Tseggay Berhe.  Eritrea and Ethiopia surprised the world by going to war in May 1998 over the position of their common border, ending seven years of peace. A peace agreement signed in December 2000 brought hopes of a new era of reconciliation and rehabilitation. What challenges now face the two nations and their peoples, the region and the international community? Is peace sustainable? Research by the University of Leeds, the Inter-Africa Group in Addis Ababa and local partners in Eritrea explored the nature of conflict between Eritrea and Ethiopia over the last four decades. What has the impact of war been on people's livelihoods, especially when combined with drought? What has been the role of humanitarian assistance? What difference have the policies of the Ethiopian Dergue regime, the Eritrean Peoples' Liberation Front (EPLF) and the Tigray Peoples' Liberation Front (TPLF) made in terms of rehabilitation and reconstruction? For further information, see: www.id21.org/society/S10ajr1g1.html

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Text of Agreement Between Eritrea and Ethiopia to be signed in Algiers, 12 December 2000

Gabon - 


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)PRICE OF AIDS TESTING AND ARV DRUGS SLASHED http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=41602 The government of Gabon has announced a further cut in the price of anti-retroviral drugs for people living with AIDS and has slashed the price of HIV/AIDS testing for the country's 1.2 million population. Both measures were introduced in April following an announcement by the Global Funds to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria that it would grant the West African country US $3 million grant to help fight AIDS.

Ghana - 


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)WILDAF HOLDS FORUM ON CORRUPTION http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=59434
The success of the anti-corruption crusade in Ghana depended on peoples' willingness to question the actions of people in authority at all levels. Mrs Hilary Gbedemah, Senior Legal Advisor of the Women In Law and Development in Africa (WILDAF), made the point at a public forum on how to deal with corruption in Ghana.

Great Lakes Region - 

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) GREAT LAKES: Prospects for peace increase as region moves into 2004   AUTHOR: IRIN  1/9/2004 SOURCE: IRIN  SOURCE WEBSITE: http://www.irinnews.org/print.asp?ReportID=38831 SUMMARY & COMMENT: Overview of developments in 2003 in DRCongo, ROCongo, CAR, Rwanda, and Burundi. Efforts for peace democracy and stability are touched on, and blocks to achieving these goals, in IRIN's usual measured but insightful way.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)GREAT LAKES: Religious group opts for 'traditional' methods of conflict resolution. Author: F C C and Churches in the Great Lakes and Horn of Africa. DATE: 12/5/2004  SOURCE: UN Integrated regional information networks. SUMMARY & COMMENT: In preparation for as international conference scheduled for November in Dar es Salaam Religious groups in the Great Lakes region want to create and promote an environment for dialogue and consensus-building towards the peaceful resolution of conflicts. 

Guinea - 


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)THE RICH, THE POOR AND THE RESERVES OF OIL http://www.capetimes.co.za/index.php?fSectionId=334&fArticleId=379811 Equatorial Guinea has suddenly been brought into the world's spotlight as a result of a supposed coup attempt there by a group of former members of the South African special forces. The picture that is emerging is not a pretty sight. This country is a caricature of Africa, a microcosm of all that is bad about the continent. Because of the discoveries of bigger and bigger oil reserves every year in its waters, Equatorial Guinea has one of the highest economic growth rates in the world - nearly 17% in 2002 and over 14% in 2003. Yet 65% of the people still live in extreme poverty and the oil wealth is concentrated in the hands of no more than 5% of the population.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)The Refugee Crisis in Guinea: Another Macedonia?

Kenya - 


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)NEW PAY FOR DONS WON'T STEM BRAIN DRAIN - http://allafrica.com/stories/200404130063.html  Will the recent salary and harmonisation of housing allowance for public university lecturers stem the brain-drain from the country? Universities Academic Staff Union (Uasu) secretary-general, Charles Namachanja, doesn't believe so. "What we have been offered is way bellow our expectations. We wanted to be paid salaries that could attract the best brains from any part of the world," says Namachanja.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)FOUR TEACHERS DYING EVERY DAY OF AIDS - http://www.sarpn.org.za/newsflash.php#1280 The Ministry of Education loses between four to six of the 235,000 teachers daily through HIV/Aids. Permanent Secretary Prof Karega Mutahi said there was a large number of teachers already infected and that many others are bed-ridden. This has affected teaching and student performance in both primary and secondary schools, he added. "Sick teachers have to be on the payroll which means that the already stressed education system must carry a large proportion of unproductive persons. That means that work is piled up on those not sick," he said.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)PARENTS STILL PAY FOR FREE PRIMARY EDUCATION - http://allafrica.com/stories/200404130088.html Parents with children in public primary schools had paid Sh2.64 million in "school fees" by early last year, despite a Government directive that made primary education free and compulsory. The directive was effected early last year but some schools continued to charge fees. The questionable payments were detected by an audit firm commissioned by the Government to establish the impact of a donor funded book project. Carried out in 25 districts countrywide to establish how the project was working, it discovered that nearly a quarter of the country's 18,000 schools had been charging fees. Parents were being forced to pay the money to the district education boards to finance "mysterious" projects.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)EDUCATION SYSTEM SET FOR REFORMS - http://allafrica.com/stories/200405100622.html Kenya is studying the education systems of Japan, Korea and Malaysia to see how it can reform its own system to spur industrialisation. This was disclosed by the chairman of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Education, Mr Daniel Karaba, as his committee left for Japan. Karaba said during the two-week visit his 6-man committee would critically study the education systems of the three countries and Thailand if time allows. He said the trip has been necessitated by the envisaged reforms in the Kenyan education system to make it more responsive to the needs of the country.

Lesotho - 


bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) LESOTHO: WOMEN UNDER-REPRESENTED IN LESOTHO’S MEDIA, SAYS MISA’S STUDY http://www.africapulse.org.za/
index.php?action=viewarticle&articleid=1234 The Lesotho Gender and Media Baseline Study initiated by the Media Institute of Southern Africa in collaboration with Gender Links, a South African non-governmental organisation that promotes gender equality in and through the media shows that women’s views and voices are under-represented in Lesotho’s media.

Liberia - 


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)GOOD GOVERNANCE ORGANISATION FORMED http://www.transparency.org/cgi-bin/dcn-read.pl?citID=110048 An organisation seeking to promote and stimulate the ideals of good governance in the country has been established. The Liberia Organisation for Good Governance (LOGG) which is headed by Dr. Nathaniel R. Richardson as Interim President, was formed recently by a group of concerned Liberians. At a press conference to announce the formation of LOGG, Dr. Richardson said the organisation was not for profit, non political, non-governmental and represented no political group.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)CHILD SOLDIERS TOO SCARED TO GO HOME - RELIEF AGENCIES http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=41477 Child soldiers, uprooted from their families and plunged into Liberia's civil war, are lingering in temporary camps because they are too scared to return home and insufficient facilities have been created to cater for them, child protection agencies and a government commission said. After turning over their weapons, the young ex-combatants are entitled to a three-month stay in care centres, which offer medical aid, counselling, reading lessons and help tracing families. But the stop-gap is turning more permanent for many.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) UN CONFIRMS DISARMAMENT WILL RESTART ON 15 APRIL, 2004 - http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=40507 The United Nations has confirmed that the delayed disarmament programme in Liberia will restart on Thursday after a four-month delay. Jacques Klein, the head of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), made the announcement on Saturday at a joint press conference with Gyude Bryant, the Chairman of Liberia’s transitional government, in the capital Monrovia.

Libya - 


bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Africans should move/settle freely in Africa

Mali - 


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)MALI LOOKS TO CLEAN, RENEWABLE ENERGY TO EMPOWER WOMEN http://allafrica.com/stories/200403200062.html Mali is promoting solar power and modern, clean energy such as butane to reduce poverty and improve the lives of rural women and safeguard the environment. The Ministry of Mines, Energy and Water is encouraging such new and renewable energy alternatives to wood through a project that aims to reach 250 villages in the southern regions of Koulikoro, Ségou, Sikasso and Mopti. Other partners are the Ministry of Environment; the Ministry for the Promotion of Women, Children and the Family; and UNDP.

Mozambique - 


bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Christian Council of Mozambique Update Dec 4 2000

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) The Mozambican Peace Process in Perspective http://www.c-r.org/acc_moz/contents_moz.htm

Namibia - 


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)NATIONAL UN LITERACY DECADE CAMPAIGN LAUNCHED http://portal.unesco.org/en/ ev.php@URL_ID=19500&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html Namibia is one of the first countries in the world to form a national coalition on the UN Literacy Decade. During a conference earlier this month, some 100 people representing various stakeholders in literacy came together to celebrate the launch of the Literacy Decade in the country. Representatives from Botswana and Cuba also attended the conference to share their experiences. The conference was organized by UNESCO Windhoek in collaboration with the Namibian Ministry of Basic Education, Sport and Culture.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)WOMEN'S SHARE IN LOCAL GOVT UP http://allafrica.com/stories/200405190090.html Women were, once again, winners in the Local Authority elections: their representation has increased by some two per cent - excluding the Grootfontein results. An initial study of the results revealed that women gained 123 seats of 283 countrywide - up to 43,4 per cent from 41,3 per cent during the last elections. Of the 123 seats for women, Swapo won 78 for its candidates, the DTA 18, Congress of Democrats 14 (their Lüderitz candidate excluded), UDF nine, National Unity Democratic Organisation (Nudo) three and the Civic Association of Henties Bay one.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)LABOUR STUDY SLAMS WATER CHARGES AS 'NEW APARTHEID' - http://allafrica.com/stories/200404070182.html An in-depth study of privatised water services in Namibia says that while prepaid water systems are being marketed as the solution to bad debts and water conservation, they are in fact worsening the plight of the country's most vulnerable. Titled 'Water Privatisation in Namibia: Creating a New Apartheid?', the report released by the Labour Resource and Research Institute (LaRRI), contends that the system is exposing thousands of the country's poor to preventable diseases and death.

Nigeria - 


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)NIGERIA URGES LAKE CHAD ACTION http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3565015.stm Nigeria's president has warned that Lake Chad will soon disappear unless immediate action is taken. Olusegun Obasanjo said the shrinking water levels were threatening the livelihood of more than 20 million people in the region.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)GOVERNMENT ASKS TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS TO BEGIN COURSES ON PEACE STUDIES - http://allafrica.com/stories/200404130383.html  The Federal Government has directed all tertiary institutions in Nigeria to start the teaching of peace studies as part of courses for their students commencing from the next academic session. The Vice-Chancellor of the University of Ibadan, Prof. Ayodele Falase dropped this hint at the closing of the first foundation course in peace practice organised by the peace and conflict studies programme of the university. The Vice-Chancellor, in an address read on his behalf by one of his deputies, Prof. Olusoji Offi, stated that violent conflicts rank amongst the most potent factors stifling the objectives of sustainable development in Nigeria today. He said: “This ugly situation can be reversed through both formal and informal peace education."

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)CONFLICT MANAGEMENT WORKSHOP FOR REFUGEES - http://www.dailytimesofnigeria.com/DailyTimes/2004/April/15/Conflict.asp - The National Refugee Commission has approved the proposal of the Nigerian Popular Theatre Alliance (NPTA) and African Youth Parliament (AYP), Kenya, in collaboration with Movement for Cultural Awareness (MOCA) to hold a conflict management and transformation workshop with refugees at the Oru Camp, Ogun State.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)THE LONG ROAD TO FREEDOM - http://news.independent.co.uk/world/africa/story.jsp?story=510932Each year, more than 200,000 Nigerian children are forcibly taken from their homes to be put to work. Some go with the permission of their parents, and some do not. Many, especially boys who may be as young as five or six, end up as household slaves far from home, or as agricultural workers on smallholdings or in quarries, where they break large lumps of granite with heavy iron hammers and earn little more than a few cents a day. The dust they inhale will do them lasting damage. Some, especially the younger ones, die as a result; others end up with terrible scars, both physical and psychological.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)WOMEN'S EXPERIENCES OF THE BIAFRAN WAR - What happened to Igbo women during the Biafran War / Nigerian Civil War? Why haven't their stories been told? Where are their voices in Nigerian history? This website is the result of a project by Azuka Nzegwu which focuses on Igbo women's experiences and personal accounts of the war. See: < http://www.westafricareview.com/war/vol2.2/biafra/index.htm >

Rwanda - 



NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) SAFE SANCTUARY?: THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN GENOCIDE Camille Karangwa



bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)ANNAN ADMITS U.N. BLAME OVER RWANDA http://www.reuters.co.uk/newsPackageArticle.jhtml?type=worldNews&storyID=483909§ion=news UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan has accepted institutional and personal blame for the slaughter of 800,000 civilians in the 1994 Rwanda genocide that was initially ignored by world leaders. "The international community is guilty of sins of omission," said Annan, who was head of the United Nations peacekeeping agency at the time and had asked countries to provide troops. "I believed at the time that I was doing my best. But I realised after the genocide that there was more that I could and should have done to sound the alarm and rally support," Annan said in a speech on Friday to open the "Memorial Conference on the Rwanda Genocide" to mark 10 years since the massacre.

1 85649 830 1 hbk  GBP69.95/US$69.95; 1 85649 831 X  pbk  GBP16.95/US$19.95.  "A startling expose of one of the last huge crimes of the 20th century."  "Exclusive new material from secret documents, interviews and vital eyewitness accounts."
"Controversial findings bound to attract international and national media coverage".  For information on your nearest stockist or to order a copy of this title by post, contact: Mohammed Umar, Zed Books, 7 Cynthia Street, London N1 9JF, UK. Tel +44 (0)20
7837 4014; Fax: +44(0)20 7833 3960; Email: <sales@zedbooks.demon.co.uk> quoting your full name and address for despatch, and payment details (VISA or Mastercard number, expiry date and registration address, sterling cheque or bank draft). Please add postage and packing: GBP2.00 for one copy plus GBP1.00 per additional copy (in the UK), or GBP2.50/US$4.50 per copy overseas.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)International Crisis Group's report Uganda and Rwanda: Friends or Enemies? (4 May 2000) http://www.crisisweb.org/projects/rwanda/reports/rw02emaina.htm traces in detail how two neighbours who had been the best of friends fell out over differences of approach to the war in the Congo. Eight months after the bloody clashes in Kisangani, which cost the lives of over six hundred troops and civilians, communication remains at a minimum between Presidents Museveni and Kagame; tension is building up again in Kisangani; and Uganda's and Rwanda's two rebel Congolese "proxy" factions remain more divided than ever. If early efforts are not made to ease tensions, Africa could see not only further destabilisation of the Great Lakes region, but another disastrous Ethiopia-Eritrea style war between "brothers".
The Lusaka Agreement may well be the only unifying factor between the Rwandan and Ugandan leaderships at this point. The report urges the UN Security Council to respond immediately to the current more stable situation on the ground by quickly deploying the second-phase MONUC peacekeepers, and pressing all parties to fully implement the Lusaka agreement.
The report also urges both Uganda and Rwanda to work harder at repairing their relationship through a summit meeting and by strengthening dialogue and co-operation channels at all levels, including that of civil society.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) The Preventable Genocide July 2000 Don't Blame Africa for its Wars

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Witness to Genocide: The Children of Rwanda A review by Paul Wahrhaftig.  The writing in this little book by Richard Salem briefly covers the history of the Rwandan Genocide, profiles some of the children and their hopes for the future. But the real story is in the pictures reflecting the difficulties that a traumatized child will have in contributing to building a peaceful society with democratic institutions.  Read the full review at http://www.conflict-resolution.net/articles/salem.cfm

http://www.balancingact-africa.com/news/back/balancing-act_81.html Imagine a tiny, beautiful, land-locked, densely populated and extremely poor African country that seven years ago was the site of a devastating civil war and genocide that left it in tatters. Now imagine a country that sets up an ICT Commission headed by its President; that adopts a national ICT Policy for the country and that sets up a top level national IT Agency to oversee a 400-page 5-year US$500 million plan and strategy for ICT. And finally imagine a country that commits to transforming itself from an essentially agrarian economy to a knowledge-based society within twenty years and that plans to become a services center in its region, despite being poorer than its neighbours and much less well-endowed with natural resources.

Sierra Leone - 


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)SPECIAL COURT REJECTS AMNESTY http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAFR510072004 Amnesty International has welcomed the historic decision by the Special Court for Sierra Leone dated 13 March 2004 to refuse to recognize the applicability of a national amnesty for crimes against humanity and war crimes. The Special Court for Sierra Leone held that, in accordance with international law, the general amnesty granted in the 1999 Lomé peace agreement was "ineffective" in preventing international courts, such as the Special Court, or foreign courts from prosecuting crimes against humanity and war crimes.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)The UN in Sierra Leone - tracing steps to a Stumbling Peace

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Sierra Leone: UN Report - Diamonds and Weapons

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) Sierra Leone:  Diamonds and the Struggle for Democracy - In this book, John Hirsch traces Sierra Leone's downward spiral, drawing on his first-hand experience as US Ambassador in Freetown in 1995-1998.  He analyzes the historical, social, and economic contexts of the ongoing struggle, as well as the impacts of regional and international powers.  Topics covered include the exploitation of mineral resources in the country, the involvement of private security forces, and the flawed efforts at peace negotiations.  Without sustained international intervention, he cautions, it is unlikely that Sierra Leone—a microcosm of much of Africa's post-Cold War experience—can achieve stability and a renewal of democratic institutions. Author:  John L. Hirsch
Details:  ISBN 1-55587-698-6, January 2001, International Peace Academy Occasional Paper Series.  Cost:  $12.95.  CONTACT:  Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., 1800 30th Street, Boulder, CO 80301, USA.  T: 1-303-444 6684, F: 1-303-444 0824
Email: cservice@rienner.com, Website: www.rienner.com

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Report of the expert seminar on the Sierra Leone Peace Process: Learning from the Past to Address Current Challenges held in London on  27 September 2000.  Executive Summary: The seminar explored the roles of civil society and international actors in peacemaking after the Lomé Peace Agreement in July 1999. In the discussion of the local dynamics, the main issues raised by participants concerned the importance of an inclusive peace process.  The main lines of exclusion in the past have been a) regional, with excessive centralisation around Freetown; b) gender-biased; c) mitigating against effective civil society input into formal peace processes; and d) marginalising traditional peacebuilding practices.  The primary focus of discussion about the influence of international actors was on the roles of the UN, the UK, and ECOWAS countries in both the peace process and in current attempts at 'peace enforcement'. Concern was expressed about the perceived partiality of interventions and the focus on a military 'solution.' Further issues raised were the lack of a clear mandate for peacekeeping or peacebuilding, and problems of timing and commitment in the international community.  In discussions about how the provisions of the Lomé Peace Agreement might be improved, some participants suggested the need for an interim government of national unity. Others focused on the need to rethink the amnesty provision to include traditional conceptions of reconciliation.  One theme that ran throughout the discussion was the argument that that a military 'solution' cannot in itself address the causes of war.  Peace-making efforts should instead be directed toward fostering broad-based, inclusive processes capable of addressing the underlying causes of war, with support for economic regeneration to encourage the voluntary demobilisation of armed combatants.  Complete report available at http://www.c-r.org/occ_papers/slsemreport.html


bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Paying the price. The Sierra Leone process by ACCORD, September 2000.  The signing of the Lomé Peace Agreement in July 1999 sought to bring to an end one of the most brutal civil wars of recent times. One year on and Sierra Leone is in crisis, as rebel forces challenge the authority of both UN peacekeepers and government forces. The Lomé Accord has fallen far short of the challenges inherent in peacebuilding after more than eight years of civil war. Sierra Leone, its regional neighbours and the international community are currently faced with the daunting task of moving from a crisis of effectiveness and credibility to re-establishing an environment for sustainable peace. Accord 9 explores earlier attempts to bring the conflict to an end and in doing so seeks to draw valuable lessons for the task ahead. Writers from within Sierra Leone and abroad focus on issues of implementation and power-sharing, while also examining the role of civil society.  Contents include - Introduction: the struggle for power and peace in Sierra Leone by David Lord; First stages on the road to peace: the Abidjan process (1995-96) by Lansana Gberie; The Lomé peace negotiations by Ismail Rashid; Lomé Accord summary; Implementing the Lomé Accord by Dennis Bright;
Early civil society peace initiatives: - The Mano River Bridge initiative, - The National Co-ordinating Committee for Peace, - Civil society 'contact group', - Diaspora actors; Civil society and peacebuilding: the role of the Inter-Religious; Council of Sierra Leone by Thomas Mark Turay; Grassroots peacebuilding in Pujehun by John Massaquoi and Frances Fortune; Sierra Leonean women and the peace process by Yasmin Jusu-Sheriff; Dialogue on justice and reconciliation; Chronology; Profiles; Further reading.  For a copy, go to http://www.c-r.org/accord9/index.htm for an online copy, or write to Accord Marketing, Conciliation Resources, 173 Upper Street, London N1 1RG, UK; Telephone +44 (0)20 7359 7728 Fax +44 (0)20 7359 4081; E-mail accord@c-r.org

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)MOMENTS OF TRUTH IN SIERRA LEONE: CONTEXTUALISING THE TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION - Report highlighting the importance of a participatory Truth and Reconciliation Process for building sustainable peace in the country, which
would run alongside proposed prosecutions of key human rights violations.  ISBN 1902598261; Cost: £10.00.  For more information, or to order a copy, Email: info@article19.org .  Also available on the ARTICLE 19 website:  www.article19.org

Building mechanisms for conflict resolution in South East Sierra Leone - by John Massaquoi, Coordinator of the Sulima Fishing Community Development Project
Nigerian Intervention in Sierra Leone 
Resources, Primary Industry and Conflict in Sierra Leone
Demobilisation, Disarmament and Rehabilitation
Gender and Conflict in Sierra Leone
Rural Women and Girls in the War in Sierra Leone

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Building mechanisms for conflict resolution in South East Sierra Leone by John Massaquoi, Coordinator of the Sulima Fishing Community Development Project

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Nigerian Intervention in Sierra Leone

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Resources, Primary Industry and Conflict in Sierra Leone

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Demobilisation, Disarmament and Rehabilitation

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Gender and Conflict in Sierra Leone

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Rural Women and Girls in the War in Sierra Leone

Somalia -


bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Rebirth of the Somali State

Somaliland -


bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) Report on Peace-Making Initiative In Somaliland April 1995-January 1997 Council for Peace and Development - Somaliland http://www.c-r.org/occ_papers/occ_somali.htm

South Africa -


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)FXI WARNS OF DANGERS IN PROPOSED HATE SPEECH BILL http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/59374/? PHPSESSID=26b1be8ecf8bf80eedd544b80f26f5ec The Freedom of Expression Institute (FXI) has sent a written submission  to the Department of Justice in response to its draft discussion document for a proposed hate speech bill. The objectives of this proposed law are to, among others, criminalise hate speech and also to give effect to the Constitution as well as South Africa's commitments to international law, including its obligations under the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)AIDS DRUGS ROLLOUT STARTS IN APRIL http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L2450377.htm South Africa's long-delayed national rollout of AIDS drugs will begin in April when the government makes funds available to all nine provinces, the Health Ministry said on Wednesday. The country's biggest AIDS pressure group, Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), had threatened to take the government to court before the April 14 elections unless it began the rollout.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Civil liberties remain under threat in Southern Africa, Amnesty International. DATE: 5/27/2004 - SOURCE WEBSITE: http://allafrica.com/stories/200405270644.html - SUMMARY & COMMENT: In the Southern region of Africa, there has been "an escalation in state-sponsored attacks on its critics". "Incidents of ill treatment and torture were reported throughout the year". Civic groups remained under pressure, but journalists bore the brunt of the crackdown. Media legislation, introduced in 2002, was used by the authorities to "silence" reporters. Both local and foreign journalists were subjected to arbitrary detention and attacks.  For the full report: http://web.amnesty.org/

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)UNPOLISHED GEMS - http://www.actsa.org/News/features/010504_SAmining.htm - During apartheid the mining industry was the biggest employer and the main generator of the country's wealth. It was also the central pillar for the structures of racial discrimination. Today a whole raft of progressive labour laws has given workers rights they could not have dreamt of before 1994. However now as before, in this dangerous occupation, miners continue to pay with their lives in order to multiply the profits of large multinational companies. Like in other sectors of the South African economy, workers in the mining industry are reeling from the hardship and suffering caused by the steady haemorrhaging of jobs and the toll of HIV/AIDS.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)SOUTH AFRICA: INVESTING IN THE FUTURE AWARDS - http://www.thefundingsite.co.za/RFPs/detail.asp?ID=166The annual Investing in the Future Awards honour companies and organisations that are contributing to the well-being of South African society as a whole. Winning projects have to demonstrate sustainability, partnership building between the government, business and communities, and integration into the development of South Africa. The awards are designed to heighten public, government and business awareness of corporate social investment.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)PRINCIPLES OF ELECTION MANAGEMENT, MONITORING AND OBSERVATION- http://www.eisa.org.za/PDF/pemmo.pdf Southern Africa has made significant progress in the past decade in institutionalising democracy. This is reflected in a number of developments in SADC countries including the holding of successful multi-party elections in several of them in the past ten years. There is evidence of increased popular participation in governance, and dialogue between governments and stakeholders has taken root. Democratic institutions have been set up and a number of major constitutional, legal and administrative changes have been undertaken with the objective of consolidating and deepening democracy. Notwithstanding these achievements, major challenges remain. There are pockets of conflict in several countries in the region and there have been situations in which election results have not been acceptable to all parties involved, resulting, on occasion, in violence and instability. The draft Principles for Electoral Management, Monitoring and Observation were developed by a Task Team and are premised on the understanding that every country has its own political, legal, social and cultural peculiarities. It is expected that countries will adapt the document to their particular national situations.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) 700,000 SOUTH AFRICAN CHILDREN ARE INFECTED WITH HIV- http://www.guardian.co.uk/aids/story/0,7369,1216350,00.html More than 700,000 South African children aged 14 years and younger are HIV-positive, according to figures reported last week. A survey by the Human Sciences Research Council found that the Aids epidemic was as widespread among the country's young as in the population at large. An estimated 5.7 million of South Africa's 45 million people are infected with the virus, giving it the largest HIV-positive population in the world. The survey found that 5.4% of two to 14-year-olds were HIV-positive, compared with 5.3% of the total population. Among two to nine-year-olds the infection rate was 6.7%.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)SOUTH AFRICA: SHOCKING NEW DATA ON SA WOMEN- http://www.sarpn.org.za/newsflash.php#1437 About 77 percent of young South Africans infected with HIV are women and 62 percent of them had believed they had a small or no chance of contracting the virus. The new figure tallies with a growing worldwide trend showing a far higher incidence of HIV infection among women than men. The figures were the highest authoritative results that local researchers have seen.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) South African Crime Research Guide - Online resource for crime researchers and law enforcement officers. 

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)SOUTH AFRICA: FXI RELEASES REPORT ON THE STATE OF CENSORSHIP - The Freedom of Expression Institute (FXI) has just released a report on the activities of its Anti-Censorship Programme (ACP), which has been in existence since June 2002. A decision was taken to establish the Programme last year, after the FXI experienced a sharp rise in the number of censorship cases it was being called on to handle. In the report, the FXI notes that its decision to establish the Programme has been vindicated, as censorship is clearly increasing in South Africa. Further details: http://www.pambazuka.org/newsletter.php?id=14993

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) "... a commission is a necessary exercise to enable South Africans to come to terms with their past on a morally accepted basis and to advance the cause of reconciliation." Mr Dullah Omar, former Minister of Justice.  The TRC effects its mandate through 3 committees: the Amnesty Committee, Reparation and Rehabilitation (R&R) Committee and Human Rights Violations (HRV) Committee. The Commission is currently in suspension while the work of the Amnesty Committee is completed. The remaining work of the R&R and HRV Committees has been designated to the former chairs of those Committees, and now forms part of the Amnesty Committee.  HEAD OFFICE: 9th Floor, Old Mutual Building, 106 Adderley Street, Cape Town, 8001 PO Box 3162, Cape Town, 8000, South Africa; Tel: +27 21 424-5161 Fax: +27 21 424-5225; email mailto:trcctn@iafrica.com ; web site http://www.truth.org.za



NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)CALLING GENOCIDE BY ITS RIGHTFUL NAME by Eva Dadrian

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) PEACE UNSUSTAINABLE WITHOUT DEMOCRATISATION http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=41617 Sudan will fail to enjoy the fruits of peace if it does not democratise both its peace process and its political system during the six-year transitional period following the signing of a comprehensive agreement, according to the South Africa-based think-tank, the Institute for Security Studies (ISS). "A sustainable peace is unlikely unless a government is established that enjoys the confidence of the Sudanese masses and demonstrates an unqualified commitment to peace," said ISS in a report issued this week.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) INCOMMUNICADO DETENTIONS, UNFAIR TRIALS, TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT - THE HIDDEN SIDE OF THE DARFUR CONFLICT While international attention has focussed on the humanitarian crisis in Darfur, the failure of the legal system which underpins the human rights crisis has gone largely unnoticed, Amnesty International said in a memorandum to the Sudan Government and the recently-appointed Sudanese Commission of Inquiry. The vast majority of detainees in Darfur and those arrested outside Darfur in connection with the conflict are not told the reasons for their arrest and are not allowed access to lawyers, families, and medical assistance. They are denied their right to be brought promptly before a judge or other judicial official; the right to challenge the lawfulness of their detention and the right to be treated humanely. Torture is widespread. Further details: http://www.pambazuka.org/index.php?id=22550

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)The World Has Failed Again.  Darfur Now Presents a Ghastly Question: Will the Deaths be Tens of Thousands...or Hundreds of Thousands? Eric Reeves - April 30, 2004

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) Open letter to Paul Martin: Don't let Sudan become the next Rwanda  Globe and Mail Update Tuesday, May. 11, 2004  - Dear Prime Minister Martin,  Given the worsening human-rights and humanitarian crisis in Sudan, we, the undersigned individuals and organizations, are extremely alarmed by the weak international response. Observers in the region are warning of another Rwanda.  Atrocities committed by Sudanese government forces and armed militia in both the south and west of the country have led many to speak of another genocide if nothing is done. We urge Canada to work with African and international partners to do as much as possible to halt another tragedy in the region.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)U.N. PROBES CLAIMS OF "ETHNIC CLEANSING" IN SUDAN - http://www.unwire.org/News/328_426_22571.asp Four U.N. human rights experts have begun an emergency 10-day mission in Sudan to investigate claims by a senior U.N. official of "ethnic cleansing" in the western Darfur region, Reuters reports. The team, led by Bacre Waly Ndiaye, director of the U.N. human rights office in New York, will interview refugees from Darfur in Chad before going to Sudan to investigate what the United Nations has called one of the world's worst humanitarian disasters. According to relief agencies, tens of thousands of refugees - mainly black Muslims from Darfur - have fled to eastern Chad over the past few months to escape attacks from Arab militias and Sudanese government troops.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)LAUNCH OF THE COLLAGE NETWORK - The Collage Network, an online Cultural Directory that promotes the work of Sudanese refugee artists living in Cairo, has been launched. The first of its kind, The Collage Network seeks to unite the Sudanese community through participation in the arts. The site features an online gallery, artists profiles, video and audio downloads, information on workshops, performance groups and an online booking form that makes engaging Sudanese culture for special events easy and accessible.  Further details: http://www.pambazuka.org/index.php?id=22297

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) SUDAN: DARFUR - AN INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT http://www.crisisweb.org/home/index.cfm?id=2700&l=1 The United Nations must urgently pass a resolution on Darfur that contains five main points: The condemnation of what has been happening and a demand that it stop; The imposition of an arms embargo, A call for the safe return of displaced persons to their villages of origin; The authorisation of a high level team to investigate the war crimes and an unambiguous warning to Khartoum. This suggestion comes from the International Crisis Group, which calling for major international action to address the humanitarian crisis unfolding in Darfur, western Sudan. According to USAID, even if the war were to stop immediately, as many as 100,000 people will likely die in Darfur in the coming months due to the desperate humanitarian situation. Visit the ICG's campaign page to find out more about how you can help.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Human Security in Sudan: The Report of a Canadian Assessment Mission Prepared for the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ottawa, January 2000 http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/foreignp/3110186-e.pdf (Adobe Acrobat report format)

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Summary Briefing on Sudan, August 08, 2000

Swaziland - 


NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) SWAZI HIV RATE SURPASSES BOTSWANA'S AS WORLD'S HIGHEST http://www.unwire.org/News/328_426_14207.asp A senior U.N. official criticized Swaziland's monarchy Saturday for failing to rein in HIV/AIDS, which now infects 38.6 percent of Swaziland's population, making the southern African nation's prevalence rate the highest in the world, Agence France-Presse reports. U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan's special envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa, Stephen Lewis, closed his three-day visit to Swaziland by slamming the kingdom's leadership for being "too slow to recognize the threat of HIV/AIDS on people's lives" and saying it would have to act with "lightning speed" if it wanted to reduce the prevalence rate.



NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) Tanzania: Foreign forces meddling in budget, says Church  AUTHOR: CISA  DATE: 4/23/2004  SOURCE: CISA 318  SUMMARY & COMMENT: As the Tanzanian government prepares to table this year's national budget in June, the Catholic Church in that East African country has said that a good budget should involve civil and non-governmental organizations in its preparation, and be able to tackle the plight of the poor in the long term. In other words, the IMF and the World Bank policies are interference in the local economy that is more harmful than beneficial. 



NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) INTERNET USERS' JAILED - A Tunis court has sentenced eight Internet users from the southern city of Zarzis to up to 26 years in prison. The convicted Internet users were accused of promoting terrorist attacks on the sole basis of files they downloaded from the Internet. Reporters sans frontières (RSF) has voiced shock and outrage over the sentences and called for the Internet users' release when their appeal is heard. "The trial of these young people demonstrates the Tunisian judicial system's outrageous contempt for the rights of the defence. Simply consulting Internet sites cannot be considered evidence of a terrorist plot. The Tunisian regime is trying to terrorise Internet users and silence dissent," the organisation said. Further details: http://www.pambazuka.org/index.php?id=21447



NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)LRA USING FEAR TO MOULD RECRUITS http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=40151 Samuel Opong can hardly believe his luck. The 15-year-old was abducted by the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels last year, forcibly trained to fight and, soon afterwards, forced to fight. In three fierce battles with the Ugandan army last December, he was hit by bullets in the left leg and arm. The rebels had forced him and other recent recruits to attack an army unit near the Sudan border. "I lost so much blood I started fainting, so they left me," he told IRIN at Gulu Support the Children Organisation (Gusco) counselling centre for former LRA abductees. "I woke up from the cold next morning and then [government] soldiers found me."

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)MINISTRY TO CLOSE UN SCHOOLS IN LIRA http://allafrica.com/stories/200403220909.html United Nations schools in Lira district will be closed, the inspector of schools, Norman Okello, has said. "We are fighting to close down unregistered private schools," he said. Addressing parents, teachers and students at Ngetta Unity College in Lira recently, Okello said the schools were operating without authority from the Ministry of Education and Sports. "We have learnt of some 'brief case' schools that are operating in the municipality without authority from the Ministry of Education and Sports. We are fighting to close all the unregistered schools in the district and later a countrywide operation will be carried out," he said.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Stop the genocide in northern Uganda  AUTHOR: Coalition of NGOs/Acoli Community in the Diaspora and written by Ochan Otim  DATE: 4/18/2004  SOURCE WEBSITE: http://www.petitiononline.com/savacoli/petition.html  SUMMARY & COMMENT: Add your name to this on-line petition to voice your concern over the "continuing genocide that is ravaging the Acoli, Lango and Teso sub-regions of Uganda and "the maturation of militarism in the country as manifest by the growth of 'Tribal Militias'."  This action is put forth by a coalition of concerned local and international human rights and peace movement groups.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)HUMANITARIAN CRISIS IN NORTHERN/EASTERN UGANDA by Noah's Ark Children's Ministry Uganda

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)FROM COFFINS TO ABCS: AIDS PREVENTION IN UGANDA, by Sara Rakita

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)WOMEN FORM COALITION- http://allafrica.com/stories/200405130272.html Women have formed a coalition to build and maintain a non-partisan initiative during and after the transition to multipartyism. They resolved to demand 40 to 50 percent representation in Cabinet and at all national levels. However, they ranked aspiration for presidency as the least priority among the nine major areas of concern they identified at the end of a three-day national women's conference. "We have decided to move forward, no turning back, no turning back," they chorused at the end of the conference.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)ENDING VIOLENT CONFLICTS IN UGANDA: A Manifesto for Peace



NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) Zambia: Proof of IMF/World Bank criminality AUTHOR: Sanjay Suri DATE: 5/24/2004 SOURCE: Inter Press Service -  The Zambian economy has collapsed heavily as a result of World Bank and IMF intervention, a major new study reveals. The reforms forced on Zambia by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have "directly resulted in making tens of thousands unemployed, destroyed key industries, caused extensive social unrest and increasing poverty," says a report published by the World Development Movement (WDM), a leading London-based non-governmental organisation.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)MDG REPORT JUSTIFIES MORE SOCIAL SECTOR INVESTMENT http://africa.oneworld.net/article/view/82278/1/ Civil Society for Poverty Reduction (CSPR) has said the glaring failure revealed in the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) report on Zambia justifies the call for more investment in the social sector. Commenting on the contents of the MDG report that was released recently, CSPR assistant co-ordinator Gregory Chikwanka said the report's revelations heralded the need for the government to revisit the resource allocation procedures. The report states that of the 10 MDG targets, Zambia could probably achieve one while possessing the potential to achieve only six others.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)CONGOLESE REFUGEES WOULD BE WELCOMED http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=41449 Zambia is to continue with its "open door policy" towards refugees fleeing renewed fighting in the neighbouring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), a senior official said on Monday. "So far there are no confirmed reports that there has been an influx of Congolese [into Zambia] since the renewed violence, but it is still too soon. On average we receive around 20 refugees a week from the DRC because of the general instability in that country. But should we see larger numbers coming in, we will remain welcoming," the Zambian Ministry of Home Affairs Commissioner for Refugees, Jacob Mpepo, told IRIN.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)Zambian government blames IMF/WB for lack of teachers AUTHOR: The Post, Lusaka  DATE: 2/3/2004 SOURCE: The Post, Lusaka  SUMMARY & COMMENT: The Post, Lusaka, quotes the country's education minister, saying IMF and World Bank conditionality, not a lack of resources, are responsible for the government's failure to hire the 9,000 teachers needed to meet education goals. The IFIs do not allow Zambia to exceed a fixed limit for the public-sector wage bill if Zambia is to qualify for debt relief under the HIPC initiative. Western donors provided funds to rehabilitate schools and purchase desks. The required teachers have been trained and are ready to work.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)ONLY 6,000 ZAMBIANS ON ARVS - http://allafrica.com/stories/200404090158.html  Only 6,000 people out of an estimated population of 800,000 Zambians living with HIV/AIDS have been availed with the anti-retroviral (ARV's) drugs since last year. Health Minister Brian Chituwo said this in Lusaka when he received a consignment of ARV's worth K55 million donated by the Indian government.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)MORE THAN HALF CHILDREN UNDER FIVE ARE STUNTED - http://news.hst.org.za/view.php3?id=20040529 More than half of Zambia’s children aged under five are stunted –one of the highest levels in Africa, according to UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF). "The levels of child malnutrition in Zambia had showed improvement throughout the 1990s, but since 1999 have deteriorated quite significantly," UNICEF’s nutrition and health officer, Claudia Hudspeth, told IRIN.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)CONDEMNED TO DEBT- http://www.wdm.org.uk/campaign/colludo/zambia/enews.htm  Zambia was once one of the wealthiest countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet after the oil crisis and commodity price collapse of the early 1970s, it was forced to turn to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank for assistance. So began some thirty years of Bank and Fund intervention in the Zambian economy, a period of increasing debt, economic stagnation or collapse, and social crisis. From the early 1970s to the late 1980s, Zambia's total external debt rose from US$814 million to US$6,916 million. And yet, by 2003, Zambia had received only 5 per cent of the debt service reduction committed to it under HIPC. A forthcoming World Development Movement report on Zambia clearly demonstrates that the IMF and World Bank's involvement in Zambia has been unsuccessful, undemocratic and unfair. The evidence suggests that the past twenty years of IMF and World Bank intervention have exacerbated rather than ameliorated Zambia's debt crisis.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) ZAMBIA: HARD HIT BY AIDS http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3016051.stm The southern African country of Zambia has set a new record - one which no country would wish to hold. The average life expectancy in the country is 33 years - by far the lowest in the world - and it is all due to Aids.



NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)TSVANGIRAI THREATENS MASS ACTION http://www.zvakwana.org Morgan Tsvangirai has announced that the MDC is organising a national alliance with other "democratic forces" in Zimbabwe to force Robert Mugabe to come to reason, reports the website Zvakwana.org in their latest newsletter. This grouping of labour, women, activists and others will work out a "programme of rolling mass action designed to push the regime to the long awaited negotiated settlement." "It is impressive that, with two treason charges against him, Tsvangirai continues to speak out boldly and forcefully against the regime. But people - we have to transform these words into action! Last year's "Final Push" failed because neither the people nor the leaders were ready for it," says Zvakwana.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)GOVT MOVES TO NATIONALISE ALL PRODUCTIVE LAND http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=41476 Zimbabwe's controversial land reform programme took a significant turn this week when the government announced its intention to nationalise all productive farmland in the country. "In the end all land shall be state land and there will be no such thing called private land," the official Herald newspaper quoted Lands Minister, John Nkomo, as saying on Tuesday.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)YOUTH IN ZIMBABWE PROVIDE LEADERSHIP FOR AIDS EFFORT- http://www.globalhealth.org/news/article/4558 With young people in Zimbabwe most at risk from HIV/AIDS, a new project is seeking to empower youth representatives to make a difference among their peers. The District Response Initiative (DRI), which works to reduce the effects of HIV/AIDS on rural youth in seven of the country's most impoverished districts, is already using trained peer educators to encourage HIV/AIDS awareness at youth-friendly clubs and centres. Now the DRI has drafted youth office-bearers - teenagers appointed as young parliamentarians, governors and councillors by the ministry of youth - into the cause.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes) bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)LAW MAKERS GO FOR HIV TESTS - http://www.news24.com/News24/Africa/Zimbabwe/0,,2-11-259_1523700,00.html
In a rare show of unity, several lawmakers from Zimbabwe's two rival parties on Friday underwent voluntary HIV tests in a bid to inspire 
others to do the same to curb the Aids pandemic in the southern African country. Zimbabwe is deeply divided politically, but at a news 
conference ahead of the testing, lawmakers from the ruling party and the opposition said they stood shoulder-to-shoulder in trying to combat 
the HIV virus.

NEWBUTTONPINK.GIF (519 bytes)bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes) MEN BREAK WITH TRADITION TO BECOME AIDS CAREGIVERS - http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=41090 Zimbabwean men have become increasingly involved in caring for AIDS patients, challenging the stereotype that caring for the terminally ill is women's work. For 48-year-old Luckson Murungweni, until recently it would have been inconceivable that he would one day be actively involved in caring for the chronically ill, let alone those dying from AIDS. Now his attitude is different and he has become the focal point of a home-based care project in rural Goromonzi, some 35 kilometres east of the capital, Harare.

bluesmpshpin.gif (1016 bytes)International Crisis Group's briefing paper Zimbabwe: Three Months after the Elections (26 September 2000), http://www.crisisweb.org/projects/zimbabwe/reports/zim02rep.htm examines the situation in the country in the aftermath of historic elections that almost brought down the government. In the immediate wake of the 24-25 June poll, many Zimbabweans were optimistic that a new era of democratisation and economic reform was about to begin, after six months of violence, intimidation, farm invasions, racist political rhetoric, and erosion of the rule of law. Today, those hopes have been largely dashed. The prevailing mood is one of uncertainty, frustration and anger. There is no positive leadership: no one has a sense of where the country is headed except down. In these grim circumstances, it is imperative that the international community and regional neighbours continue to provide wise counsel and bring whatever pressure they can to bear on President Mugabe and his regime, along the lines recommended in ICG's 10 July report, Zimbabwe: At the Crossroads. http://www.crisisweb.org/projects/zimbabwe/reports/zim01emai.htm

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